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Helenus

(636 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Ἕλενος; Hélenos). [German version] [1] One of the great early seers One of the great early seers, more important in the epic kyklos than in Homer; son of  Priamus and  Hecabe (Hom. Il. 6,76; 7,44; Soph. Phil. 605f.; Apollod. 3,151; P Oxy. 56,3829), twin brother of  Cassandra (Anticlides FGrH 140 F 17; P Oxy. 56,3830). According to a probably archaic tradition, H. received his gift of prophecy when he was still a child in the temple of Apollo Thymbraeus, where he and Cassandra had fallen asleep. When their parents re…

Dynasteia

(593 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (δυναστεία; dynasteía, cf. also δυνάστης; dynástēs, ‘Ruler’). Derived from δύνασθαι; dýnasthai, ‘to be capable’, ‘to be able’; ‘to have influence’, ‘to be wealthy’ [1. 116]. Dynasteia was primarily the rule ( rulership) of a small, influential group, within which high offices were inherited. Two basic levels of meaning are to be distinguished for dynasteia: in the first of them, its character as the term for a group of rulers or an individual ruler expresses more the original sense of the word; in the second the inheritance of lea…

Tanusia

(47 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of the equestrian L. Tanusius, well acquainted with Octavia [2], the sister of Augustus. She and the freed slave Philopoemen rescued her proscribed husband T. Vinius in 43 BC (Suet. Aug. 27,2; Cass. Dio 47,7,4 f.; App. B Civ. 4,44). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Gannascus

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A Canninefate, who deserted from Roman service and together with the Chauci laid waste to Lower Germania and the Gallic bank of the Rhine after the death of  Sanquinius Maximus, the governor of Lower Germania, in AD 47. The new governor  Domitius [II 11] Corbulo drove G. away and restored order. When he had G. murdered by a ruse, unrest again broke out among the Chauci, causing Claudius to pull the advance troops back to the west bank of the Rhine (Tac. Ann. 11,18f.). PIR2 G 73. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dengizich

(96 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Dintzic, Greek Δεγγιζίχ, Δινζίριχος; Dengizích, Dinzírichos). Son of Attila, king of the Huns; after the latter's death D. assembled an army from the elements of the Hun empire that were still under his control, to fight the Goths. He was, however, defeated at Bassianae (Pannonia) by the Goths (probably after AD 456/57, Iord. Get. 272f.). He later conducted several wars against the Romans but was killed in 469 by the mag. mil. per Thracias Anagestes (Prisc. fr. 36 [FHG 4,107f.]; Chron. pasch. 323d Dindorf). PLRE 354f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Boch…

Eparchia

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (ἐπαρχία; eparchía). Territorial administrative unit in Hellenistic states. In the Seleucid kingdom, Antiochus [5] III especially supported the setting up of smaller provinces in order to prevent power concentrations in the areas of individual satraps, as for example  Molon (222 BC). Polybius describes their head, who evidently had military and civil power, as éparchos or stratēgós (Pol. 5,46,7; 48,14); however his terminology is misleading since from the middle of the 2nd cent. BC on, eparchia started taking on the meaning of Lat . provincia (cf. SIG3 683,55 and …

Caecilia

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] [1] C. Gaia Wife of Tarquinius Priscus Wife of  Tarquinius Priscus (Fest. p. 276); in Plin. HN 8,194 and Paul. Fest. s.v. G.C. p. 85 L., her name is  Tanaquil (refer [1]). Her name links her to the goddess Gaia and thus with wedding rites. For the connection with the ager Tarquiniorum cf. Liv. 2,5; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,13,2-4, with the river god Tiber [2. 378-83]. For the name C. [2. 382]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Thomsen, King Servius Tullius, 1980, Index s.v. Tanaquil 2 A. Momigliano, Roma Arcaica, 1989, 371-83 (with all sources). …

Fravitta

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Fravitus). Tervingian army commander in the service of Rome, married to a Roman woman. In support of maintaining the Roman alliance with the Goths of AD 382, he killed Eriulf in 391 at the court of Theodosius I (Zos. 4,56,1-3; Eunapius fr. 60 FHG 4,41). In about 400 as the magister militum on behalf of Arcadius he prevented Gaenas from crossing the Hellespont (Zos. 5,20-21; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 8,4,19-21) and was rewarded for it in 401 with the consulate (Eunapius fr. 82 FHG 4,50). Around 403/4, however, he was accused of allowing …

Augustus [2]

(305 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Αὔγουστος; Aúgoustos, Σεβαστός; Sebastós). From the time of its first bestowal as a honorific on 16 January AD 27 ( Feriale Cumanum, R. Gest. div. Aug. 34) on  Octavianus, and its bequeathal by him to  Tiberius [1], the title of A. (‘the Sublime’) became an established titular component of the imperial name, but without at the same time bestowing any legal powers. Elevation to A. by the Senate, in the 3rd cent. often by the army ( Soldier emperors), marked the official installation ( dies imperii) of the Roman ruler; the praenomen Imperatoris was added to the title as …

Cetrius

(52 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] C. Severus C., tribune of the praetorians; in AD 69, together with Subrius Dexter and Pompeius Longinus, he came out in support of  Galba to oppose the incipient rise of  Otho (Tac. Hist. 1,31). He is probably the beneficiarius from ILS 2073. PIR C 703. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Demaratus

(514 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος; Dēmáratos). [German version] [1] Corinthian aristocrat 7th cent. BC Corinthian aristocrat, member of the  Bacchiadae family. D. made his fortune as a merchant around the middle of the 7th cent. BC, mainly through trade with Etruria. When he had to leave Corinth during the rule of  Cypselus he settled in Tarquinii with his followers and married an Etruscan aristocrat. According to ancient tradition the marriage produced two sons, one of whom became the first Etruscan king of Rome,  Tarquinius P…

Dasius

(188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Messapic name in Lat. form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Respected bearers of that name in Apulia (in particular from Arpi and Sala) were still anti-Roman during the Second Punic War. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] Commander of Clastidium against Hannibal D. from Brundisium, in 218 BC commander of the allied occupation forces of  Clastidium with large Roman stores which he betrayed to Hannibal after the victory at the Ticinus for 400 pieces of gold (Pol. 3,69; Liv. 21,48). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Leader of the pro-Carthaginian p…

Epigraphy

(47 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Epigraphy, from Greek ἐπιγράφειν ( epigráphein, ‘to write on something’). The term refers to ancient texts that were documented on various, mostly permanent materials (stone, bronze, etc.), as well as to the respective sub-discipline of archaeology.  Inscriptions; Epigraphy Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Decius

(1,555 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
Plebeian nomen gentile, documented in the literary tradition since the 5th cent.; the most important family were the Decii Mures (D. [I 1-3]), possibly from Campania [1], whose self-sacrifice (partly unhistorical) in battle made them much quoted examples in the tradition. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] D. Mus, P. (Origin of the cognomen not known), in 352 BC, committee member dealing with a debt crisis in Rome (Liv. 7,21,6); as war tribune in 343, he is said to have saved the army of the consul A. Cornelius [I 22] Cossus Arvina from…

Comanus

(550 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Κομανός; Komanós). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. BC C. from Naucratis. Greek grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC, who composed an exegetical work on Homer (an hypómnēma?; Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace challenged it in ‘Against C.’/Πρòς Κομανóν, schol. Hom. Il. 1,97-99; 2,798a; 24,110b). Identification with the homonymous Alexandrian politician  C. [2] is debatable, even if the grammarian is called ‘the king's chief cup-bearer’ in schol. Hes. Op. 97. The roughly 20 fragments reveal a respectable philological …

Porcia

(209 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato Sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, married to L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus. She outlived her husband, who was killed in 48 BC, and died a highly respected woman before August 45; on the model of M. (Terentius?) Varro and a certain Ollius, Cicero dedicated an elogy to her (Att. 13,37,3; 48,2). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Daughter of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, c. 95-42 BC Daughter of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, c. 95-42 BC; first married to M. Calpurnius [I 5] Bibulus and in a second marriage, from c. 44 BC on, to her cousin M. Iunius …

Diophantus

(1,146 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Διοφαντός; Diophantós). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Author of comedies, dates unknown; one fragment and the title of one play (Μετοικιζόμενος) have been preserved. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 42. [German version] [2] Commander under Mithridates VI Eupator From Sinope, son of Asclepiodotus, commander to Mithridates VI Eupator. In 110 BC he provided skilful military and diplomatic support to the inhabitants of the city of Chersonesus and thus enabled them to withstand the Scythians (Str. 7,3,1…

Gildilas

(57 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Eastern Goth, comes Syracusanae civitatis in AD 526/7, commander of the province of Sicilia, known from two letters of  Athalaric (Cassiod. Var. 9,11; 14) who threatened the comes Gotharum G. with dismissal from office because of serious irregularities in the levying of taxes and in legal decisions. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Timandra

(159 words)

Author(s): Goldhahn, Tobias | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Τιμάνδρα/ Timándra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Tyndareus and Leda Daughter of Tyndareos and Leda, sister of Clytaemnestra and Helene [1], wife of Echemus [1] of Tegea (Apollod. 3,126; 3,129; Paus. 8,5,1), and with him mother of Evander [1] (Serv. Aen. 8,130). Owing to a curse by Aphrodite on the daughters of Tyndareos (according to Stesich. in Schol. Eur. Or. 249, because Aphrodite had been passed over in a sacrifice by Tyndareos), T. leaves Echemus and goes to Dulichium with Phyleus, father of her son Meges (Eust. 305,17). Goldhahn, Tobias [German version] [2] Mistress of Alci…

Dorimachus

(206 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δωρίμαχος; Dōrímachos). Aetolian from Trichonion, son of Nicostratus, was victorious as stratēgós of the Aetolian league in 221-20 BC with  Scopas against Messenia (Pol. 4,10-13). In 220-19 he plundered Epirus and set the temple of Zeus in Dodona on fire (Diod. Sic. 26,4,7; Pol. 4,67). He turned against Thessaly in order to withdraw Philipp V from the siege of Pale (Pol. 5,5,1), then heard of Philipp's invasion in Aetolia, from where on his arrival the Macedons had already withdrawn victoriously (Pol. 5,17,5-8). In 211, D., who as princeps Aetolorum (Liv. 26,24,7) h…

Messalina

(727 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Statilia M. Third wife of Nero Born between AD 30 and 40, daughter of T. Statilius Taurus ( cos. 44), married her fourth husband M. Atticus Vestinus (= M. Iulius [II 147] Vestinus Atticus, cos. 65) in 63/4. In 65, emperor Nero forced Vestinus to commit suicide so that he could take M. as his (third) wife in 66 (Tac. Ann. 15,68,3; Suet. Nero 35,1; IG IV 1402 and IV2 604: M. as Nero's wife). In the same year, she was installed as Augusta. As a widow, she was courted by Otho in 69 (Suet. Otho 10,2). M., who was deified during her lifetime (as noted in the Acts o…

Licinia

(561 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Of noble descent, wife of M. Porcius Cato [1] Woman of noble descent; by marrying her in 192 or 191 BC, M. Porcius Cato [1] rose into the aristocracy [1. 54] (Plut. Cato 20,1). Her son was M. Porcius Cato Licinianus. She probably died in 155. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Astin, Cato the Censor, 1978, 67; 105; 263. [German version] [2] In 153 BC accused of poisoning her husband In 153 BC ([1. 12]: 154 BC), she and another woman named Publicia were accused of poisoning their husbands; strangled by family members following the verdict…

Berenice

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Βερενίκη; Bereníkē). [German version] [1] B. Maternal great niece of Antipater Born c. 340 BC as the daughter of Magas and Antigone, maternal great niece of Antipater [1]. Around 325, she married a certain Philippus, with whom she had two children: Antigone, later the wife of Pyrrhus, and Magas. Around 322, Antipater sent her (as a widow?) and his daughter Eurydice to Ptolemy I, who married Eurydice. B. quickly gained Ptolemy's respect, and bore him Arsinoe in 316, Ptolemy II in 308; other children of the …

Eunus

(200 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὔνους; Eúnous). Syrian, leader of the slave revolts in Sicily in 141-132 BC. He gathered together 400 slaves and conquered Enna; other towns joined the rebellion. Favoured by the good portent of his name (‘well disposed’) and his talent for prophecy [2. 28-29], as a result of his success he was chosen to be king in the Hellenistic manner; he called himself Antiochus (Diod. Sic. 34,2,24; [3]) and took on the traditional insignia of rule, although this indicates his desire for unit…

Diogeiton

(77 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Διογείτων; Diogeítōn). In 401/400 BC, D. was on trial because of abuse of the custody of his brother Diodotus' children and the embezzlement of his fortune. The prosecutor was one of the children of Diodotus, who had died in 409/408; he was also D.'s grandchild, since Diodotus had married the daughter of D. (Lys. or. 32, contra D.). Traill, PAA 325580. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography J. M. Moore, D.'s Dioikesis, in: GRBS 23, 1982, 351-355.

Decebalus

(299 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δεκέβαλος; Dekébalos). D. was the last Dacian king, reigning from c. AD 87-106. In addition to modern-day western and central Transylvania, his kingdom included the Banat and the Walachian plains. According to Cass. Dio (67,6,1-2) he was a match for Rome thanks to his excellent military skills, uniting the Dacian tribes and even persuading Sarmatian and German groups to join him against Rome. After he had conquered parts of Iazygian territory and invaded Moesia in 85/86, a war against Domi…

Bardylis

(108 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC Illyrian king in the first half of the 4th cent. BC, founder of a dynasty (Theopomp. fr. 35; Cic. Off. 2,40). He played a major role in the victory over Perdiccas III in 359 BC; fell in the following year fighting against Philip II. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography P. Cabanes, Les Illyriens de B. à Genthios, 1988 N.G.L. Hammond, The Battle between Philip and B., in: Antichthon 23, 1989, 1-9. [German version] [2] Perhaps grandson of B. Perhaps grandson of B. [1], father of Bircenna, wife of  Pyrrhus of Epirus. Strothman…

Evagon

(118 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐάγων / Euágōn, in MSS also as Εὐγαίων / Eugaíōn, Εὐγέων / Eugéōn). Of Samos, hailed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as one of the earliest of the Greek historiographers (De Thucydide 5) and the first Samian historian (last third of the 5th cent. BC), the author of Hôroi Samíōn, which was still referred to by Aristotle; Thucydides, too, used it. In the course of a 2nd cent. BC territorial dispute with Priene, the Samians cited an old border agreement (early 7th cent.), mentioned by E. ─ who thus is one of the earliest local …

Censorius Niger, C.

(100 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] vielleicht aus Solva in Noricum [1. 80], nach 132 n.Chr. Prokurator in Mauretania Tingitana [2. 49 Anm. 79, 80], nach 135 Prokurator in Noricum (CIL III 5174; 5181). Er war eng mit Fronto befreundet (Fronto, Ad Ant. Pium 3, p. 157 van den Hout), zunächst auch mit dem praef. praetorio Gavius Maximus, den er dann in seinem Testament beleidigte (Fronto, Ad Ant. Pium 4, p. 159). PIR2 C 658. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 G. Alföldy, Noricum, 1974 (Quellen zu C. 244) 2 G. Winkler, Reichsbeamte von Noricum ..., 1969, Nr.10. Pflaum 1, 226-229, Nr. 97 bis, 201 T…

Diogeiton

(70 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Διογείτων). Im Jahr 401/0 v.Chr. stand D. wegen des Mißbrauchs des Sorgerechts für die Kinder seines Bruders Diodotos und der Veruntreuung seines Vermögens vor Gericht. Ankläger war eines der Kinder des 409/8 verstorbenen Diodotos, zugleich Enkel des D., da Diodotos die Tochter des D. geheiratet hatte (Lys. or. 32, contra D.). Traill, PAA 325580. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography J.M. Moore, D.'s Dioikesis, in: GRBS 23, 1982, 351-355.

Papiria

(45 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Tochter des C. Papirius [I 17] Maso, Consul 231 v.Chr., erste Frau des L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus. Aus der Ehe gingen die Söhne Q. Fabius [I 23] Maximus (Aemilianus) und P. Cornelius [I 70] Scipio Aemilianus hervor (Plut. Aemilius Paulus 5,1-4). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Eparchia

(164 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (ἐπαρχία). Territoriale Verwaltungseinheit in hell. Staaten. Im Seleukidenreich förderte bes. Antiochos [5] III. die Einrichtung kleinerer Bezirke, um Machtkonzentrationen in Gebieten einzelner Satrapen, wie etwa des Molon (222 v.Chr.) zu verhindern. Polybios bezeichnet ihre Vorsteher, die offenbar mil. und zivile Gewalt besaßen, als éparchos bzw. stratēgós (Pol. 5,46,7; 48,14), doch ist seine Terminologie irreführend, da e. seit der Mitte des 2. Jh.v.Chr. allmählich die Bed. von lat. provincia annimmt (vgl. SIG3 683,55 und 65; Arr. Parth. fr. 1,2: éparcho…

Eklektos

(119 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Ἔκλεκτος, auch Electus, Eiectus). E. aus Ägypten, Freigelassener des Verus, wohnte später im Palast des Marcus Aurelius (SHA Ver. 9,5f.), nach dessen Tod er cubicularius von dessen Neffen M. Ummidius Quadratus wurde. Als dieser 182 n.Chr. hingerichtet wurde, übernahm Commodus den E. (Herodian. 1,16,5; Cass. Dio 72,4,6), mit dem er bei Gladiatorenspielen auftrat (SHA Comm. 15,2; Cass. Dio 72,19,4). 193 betrieb er mit dem Praetorianerpraefekten Aemilius Laetus und Marcia der concubina des Commodus, die Ermordung des Kaisers (Herodian. 1,17,6; 2,1,3;…

Dorimachos

(186 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Δωρίμαχος). Aitoler aus Trichonion, Sohn des Nikostratos, siegte als strategós des aitolischen Bundes 221/20 v.Chr. mit Skopas gegen Messenien (Pol. 4,10-13). 220/19 plünderte er Epirus und steckte den Zeustempel in Dodona in Brand (Diod. 26,4,7; Pol. 4,67). Er wandte sich gegen Thessalien, um Philipp V. von der Belagerung von Pale abzuziehen (Pol. 5,5,1), erfuhr dann von dessen Einfall in Aitolien, das er erst erreichte, als die Makedonen bereits siegreich abgezogen waren (Pol. 5,17,5-8). 211 versuchte D., der ein Jahr zuvor als princeps Aetolorum (Liv. 26,2…

Minucia

(26 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Vestalin, 337 v.Chr. von einem Sklaven angezeigt, wegen Inzest verurteilt und bei der Porta Collina lebendig begraben (Liv. 8,15,7). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Cluvia Pacula

(43 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Facula bei Val. Max. 5,2,1). Prostituierte aus Capua; sie erhielt auf Senatsbeschluß nach 210 v.Chr. Eigentum und Freiheit zurück, da sie im 2. Punischen Krieg heimlich röm. Gefangene mit Lebensmitteln versorgt hatte (Liv. 26,33,8; 34,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Dasius

(167 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München)
Messapischer Name in lat. Form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Angesehene Namensträger in Apulien (bes. aus Arpi und Salapia), waren noch im zweiten Punischen Krieg romfeindlich. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [1] Kommandant von Clastidium gegen Hannibal D. aus Brundisium, 218 v.Chr. Kommandant der bundesgenössischen Besatzung von Clastidium mit großem röm. Vorratslager, das er an Hannibal nach dem Sieg am Ticinus gegen 400 Goldstücke verriet (Pol. 3,69; Liv. 21,48). Günther, Linda-Marie (München) [English version] [2] Führer der prokarthagischen Pa…

Dellius

(201 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(handschriftlich auch Deillius, Deillios). [English version] Q.D. (Name bei Cass. Dio 49,39,2), von Messalla Corvinus als desultor bellorum civium bezeichnet, da er 43 v.Chr. von P. Cornelius [I 29] Dolabella zu C. Cassius [I 10], im Jahr darauf zu M. Antonius und schließlich kurz vor der Schlacht von Actium mit wichtigen Informationen über die Truppen des Antonius in das Lager Octavians wechselte (Sen. suas. 1,7), bei dem er in hohem Ansehen stand (Sen. clem. 1,10,1; Horaz widmete ihm carm. 2,3). Für Antonius un…

Demaratos

(482 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος). [English version] [1] Korinthischer Aristokrat, 7. Jh.v.Chr. Korinthischer Aristokrat, Angehöriger der Familie der Bakchiadai. D. gelangte um die Mitte des 7. Jh.v.Chr. als Kaufmann bes. durch den Handel mit Etrurien zu Wohlstand. Als er unter der Herrschaft des Kypselos Korinth verlassen mußte, ließ er sich mit seinem Gefolge in Tarquinii nieder und heiratete eine etr. Aristokratin. Antiker Tradition zufolge gingen aus der Ehe zwei Söhne hervor, u.a. der erste etr. König Roms, Tarquinius P…

Gundericus

(170 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Gunderich). G. wurde nach dem Tod seines Vaters Godigiselus 406 n.Chr. zum König der vandalischen Hasdingen gewählt, vereinigte seine Scharen mit den Alanen unter Respendial (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), besiegte die Franken und überschritt Ende 406 den Rhein. Ohne auf organisierten Widerstand zu treffen, plünderte er Gallien (Oros. 7,40,3; Chron. min. 1,299; 465 Mommsen; Zos. 6,3), zog 409 über die Pyrenäen (Chron. min. 2,17; Soz. 9,12; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,2) und sicherte sich 411 d…

Fundania

(50 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Tochter des Marcius Fundanius, vermutlich zweite Ehefrau des M. Terentius Varro, der ihr im J. 36 v.Chr. de re rustica, B. 1 widmete (rust. 1,1,1; 2, praef. 6 mit Komm. bei [1. ad loc.]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 D. Flach, Gespräche über die Landwirtschaft, 1996 und 1997.

Akestor

(254 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀκέστωρ), “Heiler”, lit. Epitheton Apollons (Eur. Androm. 900), aber auch Anthronym (unbekannter Athener: Aristoph. vesp. 1221). [English version] [1] Sohn des Ephippos von Tanagra Sohn des Ephippos von Tanagra, von Achilleus getötet (Plut. qu. Gr. 37, 299c, nach lokaler Epik). Graf, Fritz (Princeton) [English version] [2] Heros in der Genealogie der Philaiden Heros in der Genealogie der Philaiden, nämlich Urenkel des Philaios (Pherek. FGrH 3 F 2; Markell. v. Thuk. 3). Graf, Fritz (Princeton) [English version] [3] Athener Athener, angeblich Nachkomme von Aiakos und Phil…

Gesalicus

(141 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Gesalech; auch Gesalecus, Gisaleicus). Illegitimer Sohn des Alaricus [3] II., wurde nach dessen Tod bei Vouillé 507 n.Chr. zum Westgotenkönig gewählt, da sein legitimer Halbbruder Amalaricus, ein Enkel des ostgot. Königs Theoderich, noch minderjährig war (Prok. BG 5,12,43). G. wurde bald von Burgunden und Franken zum Rückzug nach Spanien gezwungen (Chron. min. 1,665f. Mommsen); als ihm Theoderich nun die Herrschaft zugunsten des Amalaricus streitig machte (Prok. BG 5,12,46), flo…

Bardylis

(98 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Illyr. König in der ersten H. des 4.Jh. v.Chr. Illyr. König in der ersten H. des 4.Jh. v.Chr., Dynastiegründer (Theop. fr. 35; Cic. off. 2,40). Er hatte großen Anteil am Sieg über Perdikkas III. 359 v.Chr.; fiel im Jahr darauf gegen Philipp II. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography P. Cabanes, Les Illyriens de B. à Genthios, 1988  N.G.L. Hammond, The Battle between Philip and B., in: Antichthon 23, 1989, 1-9. [English version] [2] Vielleicht Enkel von B. [1] Vielleicht Enkel von B. [1], Vater der Birkenna, der Frau des Pyrrhos von Epirus. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Lais

(344 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Λαίς). Die “gemeinhin Bekannte” von λαός (“Volk”) [1] oder aus dem Semit., “Löwin”. Beliebter Hetärenname, was die Identifizierung erschwert. [English version] [1] Hetäre aus Korinth Hetäre (Hetairai) aus Korinth. L. wird als schön (Athen. 13,587d), schlagfertig (im Gespräch mit Euripides bei Athen. 13,582cd, der sie Eur. Med. 1346 zitiert), wählerisch und teuer beschrieben; L. sei im Alter zur mittellosen Trinkerin geworden (Athen. 13,570cd). L. starb 392 v.Chr. (schol. Aristoph. Plut. 179, [1. Bd. 1, 491]), auch durch ihren Lebenswandel (so Athen. 13, 587e; Philetairos, Kyn…

Godigisclus

(80 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Godigisel, Godegisel). Burgundenkönig, Sohn des Gundiok, residierte seit ca. 474 n.Chr. in Genf, stets im Schatten seines älteren Bruders Gundobad (Ennod. vita Epiphanii 174). 500 besiegte er gemeinsam mit dem Frankenkönig Chlodovechus Gundobad bei Dijon, wurde von diesem aber 501, als Chlodovechus sich gegen die Westgoten wenden mußte, getötet (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,32f; Chron. min. 2,234 Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 516 (Godigisel 2) Stein, Spätröm. R., 2, 144 mit Anm. 2.

Diogenes

(4,506 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Kyniker D. [14] von Sinope, der Philosophiehistoriker D. [17] Laertios. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] makedon. Truppenkommandant in Attika seit 233 v. Chr. Athener (?) [1. 341,1], seit 233 v.Chr. maked. Truppenkommandant in Attika, soll beim Gerücht vom Tod des Aratos [2] von den Achaiern Korinth gefordert haben (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63]; ermöglichte nach dem Tod des Demetrios [3] II. im J. 229 mit der Preisgabe des Piraeus und anderer Garnisonen…

Dagisthaios

(101 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] (Δαγισθαῖος). D., wahrscheinlich got. Herkunft, belagerte als junger Feldherr der Römer 548/9 n.Chr. erfolglos das persisch besetzte Petra im Gebiet der Lazen (Prok. BP 2,29 bes. 33-43). Später wurde er deshalb bei Iustinian wegen perserfreundlicher Gesinnung verklagt und vom Kaiser arrestiert (Prok. BG 4,9,1-4). Für den Narses-Zug nach It. wurde er aus der Haft entlassen und nahm an der Entscheidungsschlacht gegen Totila bei Busta Gallorum 552 n.Chr. teil (Prok. BG 4,31,3-4). Au…

Cornelius Bocchus

(116 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Vom älteren Plinius als Quelle für Teile seiner Naturalis historia erwähnt (Plin. nat. 16,216; 37,24; 97; 127); auch Solinus stützt sich mehrfach auf einen C.B. als Gewährsmann für chronologische Angaben (vgl. Solin. 1,97; 2,11; 2,18), doch ist dessen Identität mit dem bei Plinius genannten C.B. (vermutet von [1. XIV]) nicht beweisbar [2. 646f.]. Wahrscheinlich beziehen sich auf den Gewährsmann des Plinius aber die Inschr. CIL II 35 und 5184 (=ILS 2920 und 2921) aus Lusitania (1. Jh.n.Chr.), wonach ein Lucius C.B. flamen provinciae und tribunus militum legioni…

Cestius

(579 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Plebeischer Familienname, seit dem 1.Jh. v.Chr. bezeugt, auch in Praeneste vorkommend (ThlL, Onom. 354f); die Familie ist polit. unbedeutend [2]. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] C. Brückenbauer, spätrepublikanische Zeit Erbauer des pons Cestius zw. dem rechten Tiberufer und der Tiberinsel wohl in spätrepublikanischer Zeit; sonst unbekannt. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] C., C. Praetor (?) 44 v.Chr. Praetor (?) 44 v.Chr., wohl 43 von Antonius proskribiert. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 3] C., L. Praetor und Münzm…
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