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Ottomans

(603 words)

Author(s): Ursinus, Michael
[German Version] The Ottomans, sometimes called the Imperial House of Osman (the dynasty’s founder), were the rulers of the Ottoman Empire. In a broader sense, the term denotes the Muslim (and since around the mid-19th cent. officially even the non-Muslim) population of this last Islamic empire. It had arisen from the chaos surrounding the collapse of Mongol rule over the Seljuks, developing from an Anatolian principality into an immediate neighbor and rival of Byzantium, until finally, with the c…

Turkish Menace

(540 words)

Author(s): Ursinus, Michael
[German Version] Especially after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the image of the “terrible Turk” as the pagan archenemy of Christendom spread among the population of the Christian West, encouraged by spokesmen for the church and the secular authorities, who called for a religious war against the Turks (and imposed a “Turkish levy” to finance it). After c. 1500, the pressure and dissemination of anti-Turkish propaganda played a significant role. A broadsheet published in Rome in 1453 describe…

Osmanen

(517 words)

Author(s): Ursinus, Michael
[English Version] Osmanen, nach dem Dynastiegründer Osman benannte Herrscherfamilie des Osmanischen Reiches; im erweiterten Sinne Bez. auch für die musl., seit etwa Mitte des 19.Jh. gar offiziell auch die nichtmusl. Bewohner dieses letzten isl. Großreiches, das sich nach den Wirren der zerfallenden mongolischen Herrschaft über die Selgˇūken aus einem anatolischen Fürstentum in unmittelbarer Nachbarschaft und Rivalität zu Byzanz schließlich 1453 mit der Einnahme von Konstantinopel (: III.) zu dess…

Türken(gefahr)

(508 words)

Author(s): Ursinus, Michael
[English Version] . Propagiert von den Wortführern von Kirche und weltl. Herrschaft, verbreitete sich in der öfftl. Meinung des christl. Abendlandes, bes. seit dem Fall von Konstantinopel (1453), das Bild vom »schrecklichen Türken« als Heide, Angreifer und Erzfeind der Christenheit, gegen den Glaubenskrieg zu führen sei (zu dessen Finanzierung wiederum »Türkenhilfe« geleistet werden müsse). Ab ca.1500 spielte hierbei der Druck und die Verbreitung sog. »Türkenschriften« eine bedeutende Rolle. In ei…

Basiret

(411 words)

Author(s): Ursinus, Michael O.H.
Basiret (Baṣīret) was an Ottoman periodical that was published—with interruptions due to censorship—from 20 Şevval (Shawwāl)1286/23 January 1870 until 20 May 1878, when it was closed by the government. Initially, it consisted of four pages per issue and appeared five days a week (except Fridays and Sundays). Later, it was published every day, with more pages, and its daily circulation rose from roughly 300 to about 1,000. The newspaper was revived again briefly, on 29 September 1908. Basiretçi Ali (Baṣīretçi ʿAlī) Efendi, the paper’s concessionary and long-serving princi…
Date: 2019-07-18

Cetinje

(495 words)

Author(s): Ursinus, Michael O.H.
Cetinje (Turk. Çetince; in Ottoman orthography, Çetiīne) is a town in present-day Montenegro (Crna Gora; Turk. Karadağ), with a population of 13,991 (2011), which is located at the foot of Mt. Lovćen, roughly 30 kilometres (19 miles) southwest of the country’s capital, Podgorica. It served as the political, cultural, and spiritual centre of the principality of Montenegro (from 1910, a kingdom) until the end of World War I. Cetinje is famous for its Monastery of the Holy Mother of God (Bogorodica), as well as a rich tradition of publishing in Cyrillic, which began in the las…
Date: 2019-07-18

Asia Minor

(5,414 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Daniel | Schuler, Christof | Rutgers, Leonard V. | Breytenbach, Cilliers | Ursinus, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] I. Geography – II. History – III. Society – IV. Religions – V. Literature I. Geography “Asia Minor” serves as the historical designation of the peninsula between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea; its eastern boundary is marked by the Amanus, the Anti-Taurus, and the upper reaches of the Euphrates (Turkey). To the north and south, coastal mountain ranges (t…