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Ilioneus

(67 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰλιονεύς; Ilioneús). Trojan warrior, son of a farmer by the name of Phorbas who was very wealthy due to his close connection to  Hermes; killed in battle by  Peneleus, the Minyaean prince (Hom. Il. 14,487-507). Virgil uses this name for the oldest leader of the Trojan refugees (A. 1,521 et passim). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 161.

Glaukopis

(116 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (γλαυκῶπις; glaukôpis). Epic epithet. In Homer used as a metrical substitute or complementary for the name Athene, above all in the connection γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη ( glaukôpis Athḗnē). The noun μήνη ( mḗnē, ‘moon’) is also documented several times as a reference word for glaukopis (first in Empedocles, 31 B 42 Diels/Kranz). The epithet can be interpreted in two ways: either as ‘owl-eyed’ (from γλαῦξ, glaûx, ‘owl’) or ‘with a sparkling look’ (from γλαυκός, glaukós, ‘sparkling’). Both interpretations were already represented in antiquity. The suffix limb -ωπι…

Coronus

(106 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κορωνός; Korōnós). Ruler of the  Lapithae, son of  Caeneus; C.'s son Leonteus, together with Polypoetes, led the contingent of the Lapiths before Troy. Homer mentions C.'s name in the catalogue of ships in order to give prominence the little-known Leonteus; in early mythology C. was probably associated with the  legend of the Argonauts, where Apoll. Rhod. also mentions him (1,57f.). A story which possibly reflects historical events is reported at Apollod. 2,154: according to it, C…

Canthus

(120 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάνθος; Kánthos). Argonaut from Euboea, in Apollonius Rhodius the son of Canethus, the eponym of a Euboean mountain, and grandson of Abas [1c], the eponym of the whole island under its old name Abantis (1,77). In Valerius Flaccus, C. is the son of Abas. C. scarcely makes an appearance in the story of the Argonauts, only his death in battle - either on the return journey in Libya (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1485-1501: he is the only one of the Argonauts to fall in battle there; cf. Orph. Arg. 141-143), or in Colchis fighting the Iazyges (Val. Fl. 6,317-341) is described in some detail. Visser…

Cepheus

(262 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
(Κηφεύς; Kēpheús). [German version] [3] see  Constellations [German version] [1] Arcadian hero Arcadian local hero, son of  Aleus [1], the founder of Tegea, and of Neaera, founding hero of the city of  Caphyae (whose name is derived from C.). His daughter Antinoe founded Mantinea. C. later takes over the rulership of Tegea from his father. When  Hercules, after the conquest of the Neleid kingdom, sets off on a punitive expedition against the Spartan king  Hippocoon, he invites C. and his twenty sons to take…

Hekebolos

(91 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἑκηβόλος; Hekēbólos). Epic epithet for  Apollo in his role as an archer (Hom. Il. 1,14 et passim), for  Artemis in early Greek texts only attested in the Nikandre inscription (SEG 19, 507 5); later with a considerably widened field of reference. In antiquity understood as ‘hitting far away into the distance’ (for ἑκάς and βάλλειν) (schol. T for Hom. Il. 1,14; cf. Aesch. Eum. 628: τόξοις ἑκηβόλοισιν), more probable is a derivation from ἑκών (roughly: ‘hitting at will’). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography Frisk, s.v. H. Chantraine, s.v. H.

Ganymeda

(38 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γανυμήδα; Ganymḗda). Female deity in Phleius, patroness of prisoners, later equated with  Hebe because of the linguistic similarity to  Ganymede, the cup-bearer of the gods. The only source is Paus. 2,13,3f. Visser, Edzard (Basle)

Cinaethon

(132 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κιναίθων; Kinaíthōn). Epic poet from Sparta, thought to have lived in the 7th or 6th cent. BC. Nothing of his works survives in the original, but testimonia indicate that their basic characteristic was the representation of genealogies. A reference in the Tabulae Iliacae names C. as the author of an Oedipodea. Jer. Chron. 4,2, names him also as the author of a Telegonia, but traditionally this epic poem is associated with Eugammon. It is uncertain whether C. also wrote an epic on Heracles; an even more dubious claim, found in a scholion to …

Guneus

(133 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γουνεύς; Gouneús). Leader of the 28th contingent described in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,748-755). His territory, clearly defined by the place names Kyphos and Dodona as well as the tribal names of the Aenianes and Peraebians, comprises approximately the centre of the Pindus Massif and links Thessaly with Epirus. In the epic Kyklos, G. then only reappears in the  Nostoi; here it told of a shipwreck off the coast of Cape Caphereus, perhaps also of migration to Libya…

Ialmenus

(87 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰάλμενος; Iálmenos). Son of  Ares and  Astyoche. Along with his twin brother  Ascalaphus [2], he led the Minyan contingent at Troy (Hom. Il. 2, 511), and is therefore also mentioned as a suitor of  Helen (Apollod. 3,130). After the capture of Troy, he makes his home in the Crimean region with Minyan settlers (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 143; Str. 9,2,42). Like his brother, I. was probably a figure of pre-Iliadic myth. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias, 1960, 70f. Kamptz, 252.

Hellen

(137 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἕλλην; Héllēn). Eponymous progenitor of the Hellenes, therefore of the entirety of the inhabitants of Greece; the individual tribes took their names from H.'s sons and grandsons  Dorus,  Xuthus (father of  Ion and  Achaeus [1]) and  Aeolus [1].  Pyrrha and either  Deucalion (Hes. fr. 2; schol. Hes. Op. 158a; Thuc. 1,3,12; Diod. Sic. 4,60,2) or Zeus (schol. Pl. Symp. 208d; Apollod. 1,49) are named as H.'s parents. In the Homeric catalogue of ships the Hellenes inhabit only a small …

Macar(eus)

(348 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάκαρ/ Mákar, Μακαρεύς/ Makareús; Latin Macareus). Mythical king of Lesbos who resettled this island after it was depopulated through the Deucalian flood ( Deucalion) and thus gave it the name of Macaria; Lesbos is already called ‘seat of Macar’ by Homer (Hom. Il. 24,544; H. Hom. 1,37). In the last-mentioned reference, the information ‘son of Aeolus’ is added; this patronymicon was probably a reflection of the Aeolian settlement of Lesbos. The most detailed depiction of M. is provided by Diod. Sic. 5,81f.: according to this, M. was a grandson of Ze…

Graecus

(71 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γραικός; Graikós). According to Hes. fr. 5, 3 M.-W., the son of Zeus and Pandora (or the brother of Latinus, though according to Theog. 1013 the latter's mother is Circe) and the eponymous hero of the Greeks before they acquired the name Hellenes from  Hellen. The name suggests an Illyrian origin [1]. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography 1 Chantraine, s.v. G., 234. P. Dräger, Untersuchungen zu den Frauenkatalogen Hesiods, 1997, 27-42.

Iphidamas

(85 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰφιδάμας; Iphidámas). Figure from the Trojan epic cycle, son of  Antenor [1] and Theano. Raised by Cisseus, his maternal grandfather, in Percote in Thrace, he left his home against his wife's wishes in order to assist the Trojans. The slaying of I. and his brother  Coon by  Agamemnon, described in Hom. Il. 11,218-263, was also depicted on the  Cypselus chest (Paus. 5,19,4). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography I. Espermann, Theano, Antenor und Antenoriden, 1980, 71-80 P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 180.

Hyrtacus

(87 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ὕρτακος; Hýrtakos). Named in the Trojan allies' catalogue of the Iliad as father of Asius, who was the ruler over Arisbe at the Hellespont (Hom. Il. 2,835-839). H. himself only appears in Asius' patronymic information; his name is possibly to be connected with a Cretan town by the name of Hyrtacina. A hero of the same name appears in Virgil's Aeneid as the father of Nisus (Verg. Aen. 9,176f.). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography Kamptz, 313f. P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, 1988, no. 325.

Mecisteus

(120 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μηκιστεύς; Mēkisteús). Son of the mythical king Talaus of Argos, brother of Adrastus [1]. In the ‘Iliad he is only mentioned as the victor in boxing at Oedipus' funeral games (Hom. Il. 23,678-680; likewise in Paus. 1,28,7). A passage in Herodotus (Hdt. 5,67), according to which he was killed by Melanippus together with Tydeus, indicates that his name was among the ‘Seven against Thebes’. However, Aischyl. Sept. 488 names Hippomedon [1], another son of Talaus (as does Apollod. 3,63…

Cometes

(154 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
(Κομήτης; Komḗtēs). [German version] [1] Lover of Aegiale(ia) Lover of  Aegiale(ia) wife of  Diomedes [1], the Achaean warrior at Troy. After Diomedes' return, C. tries to kill him; when Diomedes manages to save himself by finding refuge at an altar to Athena, C. leaves his homeland Argus (schol. Hom. Il. 5, 412). Mimnermus appears to have developed the structure of this myth as a parallel to the fate of  Agamemnon (fr. 17 G.-P.; cf. also Apollod. Epit. 6,9). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of the Aetolian king Thestius According to Paus. 8,45,6 son of the Aetolian ki…

Cestrinus

(76 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κεστρῖνος; Kestrînos). Eponym of the Greek region of  Cestrine, previously Cammania, in southern Thesprotia opposite the island of Cercyra (Steph. Byz. s.v. Καμμανία). C. is the son of  Helenus [1] and  Andromache; after the death of Helenus, Molossus, the son of Neoptolemus and Andromache, took power in Thesprotia, as a result of which C. emigrated to Cammania; as the new ruler he gave it its name (Paus. 1,11,1f.; 2,23,6). Visser, Edzard (Basle)

Caeneus

(110 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Καινεύς; Kaineús, Lat. Caeneus). The name of a Lapith ruler, father of the Argonaut  Coronus. In early Greek mythology, this figure is clearly only connected to centauromachy. Because C. is invulnerable, the  Centaurs destroy him by ramming him into the earth with trees and stones (first recorded by Pind. fr. 167). His story is later elaborated on whereby C. was originally a girl (Lat. Caenis) who was raped by Poseidon and then requests that he change her into a man (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1.57-64a; Ov. Met. 12.169-209; 459-535). Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography F. Böme…

Campe

(94 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάμπη; Kámpē). Gigantic jaileress who stands guard in  Tartarus over the  Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires, monsters with one hundred hands. In the Titanomachy, Zeus follows the advice of Gaia and kills C. (according to Diod. Sic. 3.72.3 she is killed by Dionysus near the Libyan city of Zabrina) so that the former prisoners can support Zeus (Apollod. 1.6); a detailed description of C. as a sort of dragon (starting with the appellative meaning ‘caterpillar’) can be found in Nonnus, Dion. 18.236-264. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. K., RE 10, 1842.

Carme

(116 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κάρμη; Kármē). By Zeus the mother of the Cretan local goddess Britomartis, who according to Paus. 2,30,3 and Diod. Sic. 5,76 is to be equated with  Dictynna. C. is the daughter of Eubulus and granddaughter of Carmanor [1], one of the close companions of Apollo, who atones him of the killing of the python; her mother is  Demeter. According to another genealogy, C. descends from the Agenor-son Phoenix and the Arabius-daughter Cassiopeia (Antoninus Liberalis 40). In view of these con…

Maron

(167 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Μάρων; Márōn). Priest of Apollo in the Thracian city of Ismarus; first mentioned in the Cicones episode in the Odyssey: For being spared during a plundering raid by Odysseus' warriors, M. gives Odysseus amongst other things a heavy wine as a present, with which Odysseus can later stun the Cyclops (Hom. Od. 9,39-61; 196-211). M.'s name appears to be derived from the name of the Thracian city of Maronea [1] whose environs were known for good wine (Hom. Od. 9,45; Archil. fr. 2); a nu…

Itonus

(102 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). Father of  Boeotus (only in Diod. Sic. 4,67,7 his son); eponym of the town of  Iton, situated close to Coronea in Boeotia, with an important sanctuary of Athena Itonia [1]. The homonymous place and sanctuary in Thessaly (situated between Larisa and Pherae) is an important indication of the conquest and settlement of Boeotia, starting from the north, which allegedly began sixty years after the fall of Troy (Thuc. 1,12,3). I. is, however, mentioned as eponymous hero only in connection with Boeotian settlement. Visser, Edzard (Basle) Bibliography 1 Sch…

Cassiphone

(117 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Κασσιφόνη, Kassiphónē, ‘Fratricide’). Daughter of  Odysseus and of  Circe, therefore sister of  Telegonus. C. is mentioned in description at Lycoph. 807ff.; the name itself is mentioned only in the Commentary of Tzetzes. This figure is probably a late classical or Hellenistic invention, intended to expand the structure of Telegonia: there Telegonus, whom he does not know, kills his father Odysseus and marries his stepmother Penelope; Telemachus, on the other hand, marries his step…

Gaieochos

(125 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (γαιήοχος; Gaiēochos). Ep. epithet meaning ‘earth shaker’, used in Homer as a metric substitute or complimentary cognomen for Poseidon (especially in conjunction with γαιήοχος ἐννοσίγαιος; gaiēochos ennosígaios). Only late antique texts extend the reference of gaieochos beyond Poseidon to Zeus (Opp. Hal. 1,74) and Oceanus (Quint. Smyrn. 2,208). In antiquity, it was generally understood as a composite of γαῖα and ἔχειν (etymologically not tenable) or ὀχεῖσθαι (either in the form of the earth carrying Poseidon as a r…

Geryoneus

(453 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle)
[German version] (Γηρυονεύς; Gēryoneús; also Geryónēs, Geryṓn, Γηρυόνης, Γηρυών; Etruscan Cerun). Mythical giant with three heads and three bodies, residing on the island  Erytheia in the far west of the inhabited world (later generally identified with Gadeira/Cadiz: Hdt. 4,8, et al., in Ptolemy's Geographia 4,1,16, identified with Mauretania, euhemeristically relocated to Ambracia by Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 26), where he tends an especially splendid breed of red cattle. His father is Chrysaor, originated from Medusa, and his mother, an  Oceanid (Callirhoe). In the Greek myth, G.…

Ganymede

(531 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Γανυμήδης; Ganymḗdēs, Etruscan Catmite, Latin apart from G. also Catamitus). [German version] [1] Cupbearer to Zeus In Greek mythology (main source: Hom. Il 20,231-235) the son of the Dardanian king Tros (Iliad parva 29,4 PEG I: son of Laomedon), who as the most beautiful human was abducted to the Olympus to serve Zeus as cupbearer in eternal youth and to delight the gods with his beauty. He is either abducted in a windstorm (H. Hom. 5,202), by  Iris (in art, possibly already in Ibycus PMG Fr. 289), by  Hermes…

Odysseus

(2,574 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ὀδυσσεύς, Latin Ulixes, Etruscan utuze). [German version] I. Mythology Son of Laertes and Anticlea, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus. One of the central figures of Greek mythology; in Homer's Odyssey, the focus of a major Archaic epic. This fact alone indicates the significance of the figure of  O., which contrasts with the other figures of Greek heroic myth through the emphasis on special intellectual abilities. Thus, he represents an archetype in the history of European thought; his presence in later literature a…

Istituto (Nazionale) di Studi Romani

(2,453 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Visser, Romke (Winsum RWG)
Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] A. Foundation (1923-1925) (CT) The foundation of the Istituto di Studi Romani (ISR) in 1925 was inextricably linked with contemporary Fascist cultural policies. In his plans, C. Galassi-Paluzzi (1893-1972), founder of the ISR and later its president (1934-1944), followed the views of the philosopher G. Gentile, Minister for Pubblica Istruzione (1922-1924) and Fascist Italy's leading intellectual. Gentile's policy can be described as a 'nationalization' of instruction, culture and science. His aim was an exten…

Magnes

(305 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μάγνης; Mágnēs). [German version] [1] Eponymous ruler of the central Greek territory of Magnesia Eponymous ruler of the central Greek region of Magnesia. His origins are variously described; the oldest reference (Hes. Cat. 7) calls him a son of Zeus and Thyia, daughter of Deucalion and a native of Pieria. Here Macedon, the mythical progenitor of the Macedonians, is referred to as his brother; according to Apollod. 1,16 he has a son named Pierus. These familial relationships indicate acquisition of land by the Magnesians from the north. Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Son o…

Lycaon

(658 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Antoni, Silke (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Oldest mythical king of Arcadia (Λυκάων; Lykáōn). Oldest mythical king of Arcadia, son of Pelasgus and of the daughter of Oceanus, Meliboea, or the mountain nymph Cyllene. L.'s sons are the founding heroes of all important Arcadian cities; his son Oenotrus, dissatisfied with his share of the inheritance, is said to have left his homeland and settled in Italy with several followers (hence the name Oenotria) (first in Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 156). The number of 50 sons mentioned in Apol…

Hippasus

(555 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἵππασος; Híppasos). Name often used in epic texts for figures lacking any further characterization, particularly common in patronymic information about less important heroes. Esp. interesting in this context are [1] - [4]: [German version] [1] Father of Actor, the Argonaut  Father of Actor, the Argonaut (Apoll. Rhod. 1,112; Hyg. Fab. 14). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Father of Charops  Father of  Charops [4] (Hom. Il. 11,426). Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [3] Father of Hypsenor  Father of Hypsenor, killed by Deiphobus (Hom. Il. 13,411). Visser, Edzard …

Nestor

(1,290 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(Νέστωρ; Néstōr). [German version] [1] Son of Nesleus Important figure in Greek mythology, particularly in the legend of the Trojan War. N. represents the aging warrior who has lost some of his former physical strength but due to his wealth of experience fulfills an important function in the group of leaders and in the Greek army. N. is the son of Neleus (thus his fixed epithet Neleid [Νηλεΐδης; Nēleΐdēs]) and of Chloris [4]. He has two brothers by the names of Chromius and Periclymenus, who are of no mythological significance, and a sister Pero who appears to h…

Carcinus

(585 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Καρκίνος; Karkínos). [German version] [1] Cancer, the crab that was turned into a sign of the zodiac for biting Heracles in the foot at the behest of Hera while fighting the Hydra (Eratosth. Katasterismoi 11). The Alexandrian month of Karkinon (Καρκινών) was named after it. Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Epic poet C. of Naupactus, epic poet of the archaic period. In Paus. 10,38,11 C. is named, with reference to Charon of Lampsacus, as the author of the Ναυπάκτια ἔπη ( Naupáktia épē), evidently a history of this town, lying at the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf…

Marsyas

(971 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας; Marsýas). [German version] [1] Phrygian rivergod and Celaenae's god of protection Phrygian river god and Celaenae's god of protection, represented as satyr or silenus. The name is derived from a toponym that can be found repeatedly throughout Asia Minor and Syria; the river, at the source of which Celaenae lies, also carries this name (M. [5]). M. was considered the discoverer of flute playing ( aulós), the inventor of the bandage used for flute playing ( phorbeiá) and of songs for the worship of the goddess Cybele. According to the myth, the possibility to pla…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Menelaus

(2,514 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Μενέλαος/Menélaos, Attic Μενέλεως/Menéleos; Latin Menelaus). [German version] [1] Ruler of Sparta, married to Helena A significant character in the cycle of myths about the Trojan War ( Troy: Cycle of myths). A younger brother of Agamemnon, who ruled the most significant power centre in Greek myth, Mycene, by marriage to Zeus's daughter Helen ( Helene [1]; their only child was a daughter, Hermione) M. became king of a region in the Eurotas valley with its capital Sparta and Amyclae [1], which was significant…
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