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United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel

(279 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (USPG). The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) was established by T. Bray as the first missionary society of the Church of England. In 1965 SPG united with the Universities’ Mission to Central Africa (UMCA, founded in 1857 in response to the appeal of D. Livingstone) to form USPG, which represents the catholic wing of the Anglican Church. The original aims of SPG were to supply clergy to minister to British settlers and to engage in mission work among the indigenous p…

Kenya

(762 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Kenya, state in East Africa, on the Indian Ocean, with a surface area of 582,650 km2. 70% of the country is threatened by drought, while the coastal and upland areas are watered by the southeastern monsoons and relief rainfall. The population (approx. 30 million) is composed of members of the following ethnic groups: Kikuyu (22%), Luhya (14%), Luo (13%), Kalenyin (12%), Kamba (11%), Kisii (6%), Meru (6%), other African groups (15%) and non-Africans (Asiatics, Europeans, Arabs, 1%). About 26% of the inhabitants are ¶ adherents of traditional religion, 7% are Musli…

Namibia

(782 words)

Author(s): Nambala, Shekutaamba V.V. | Ward, Kevin
[German Version] I. General – II. Pre-Christian Religious History – III. History of Christianity I. General With an area of 824,295 km2 and 2,088,669 inhabitants (2008), Namibia today lies on the southwestern edge of Africa, bordered by Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe to the north, Botswana to the east, the Republic of South Africa to the south and southwest, and the Atlantic to the west. From 1884 Namibia was a protectorate of Germany. After World War I it was ceded to the League of Nations and came as a mandated t…

Kivebulaya, Apolo

(287 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (c. 1864, Ssingo, Bugunda, Uganda – May, 1933). Kivebulaya was first influenced by the Islam that flourished at the court of Kabaka Muteesa, before becoming an Anglican “reader” with ¶ the Church Missionary Society. Kivebulaya served as a soldier during the Ugandan wars of religion of the late 1880s and 1890s, and in the early colonial period he joined the police force. It was here that he probably acquired his nickname Kivebulaya – “the thing from Europe” – referring to his love for foreign fashion. He was ba…

Kikuyu Conferences

(297 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Missionary activity in Kenya at the end of the 19th century resembled a Christian “scramble for Africa.” To mitigate such unhappy divisions there evolved an annual Protestant mission convention in Kikuyu to deepen the spiritual life and to discuss practical issues. In 1913 the idea of a “federation” of missions emerged, working towards a “United Native Church,” based on three principles of the Lambeth Quadrilateral (Lambeth Conferences) of 1888 (Scripture, creeds, and sacraments),…

Mackay, Alexander Murdoch

(172 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Oct 13, 1849, Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland – Feb 8, 1890, Usambiro [today Tanzania]), pioneer of the Anglican Church Missionary Society in Uganda and son of a minister of the Free Church of Scotland. Mackay studied engineering in Edinburgh and in November 1879 came to the court of the king of Buganda. He was admired by the Baganda because of his technical skills and his lively defense of his faith, especially in arguments with Muslims and Catholic missionaries. Mackay's efforts ¶ contributed to the establishment of a strong Protestant community in Uganda,…

Livingstonia

(274 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] is a mission station of the Free Church of Scotland, established by James Stewart, from Lovedale in South Africa, along the northern shores of Lake Nyasa in what was to become the British colony of Nyasaland, present day Malawi. The mission station was named after David Livingstone, who had died in 1873 and whom Stewart had accompanied on his Zambezi expedition. Xhosa evangelists from Lovedale accompanied Stewart on his mission expeditions. From 1878 to 1927 Robert Laws was the le…

Balokole

(401 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] The Balokole fellowship is a movement of revival and spiritual renewal within the Protestant churches of East Africa. Beginning in the Anglican church of Uganda, it soon began to exert influence on many denominations within East Africa. “Balokole” means “Saved People” in Luganda. The Balokole fellowship shares many characteristics of Western e…

Quaque, Philip

(257 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (1741, Cape Coast, Ghana – Oct 17, 1816, Cape Coast), the first African Anglican priest. In 1754 Thomas Thompson, the first missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) and chaplain of the British (slave) trading “factory” The Castle, arranged for the young Quaque to go to England to receive a British education. There he was baptized in 1759 and ordained as a priest in 1765. After his return to his native land in 1766, he became successor to T…

Le Zoute Conference

(265 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Le Zoute, in Belgium, was the forum for one of the most important international mission conferences of the inter-war period. Its theme ¶ was “Christian mission in Africa,” with particular reference to evangelism, education, and race relations. Its architect was J. Oldham, secretary of the International Missionary Council (the successor to the 1910 Edinburgh Conference). Oldham was concerned that missions should respond to new social and political currents in Africa: “The whole work of the Conference was…

Rebmann, Johannes

(187 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jan 16, 1820, Gerlingen – Oct 4, 1876, Korntal), trained at the Basel Mission seminary, subsequently took Anglican orders and was sent by the Church Missionary Society to East Africa in 1846. With J.L. Krapf, he lived in Rabai among the Mijikenda, in the hinterland of Mombasa (Kenya), hoping that these people would prove more receptive to the gospel than the Swahili-speaking Muslim population on the coast. Like Krapf, Rebmann came from a ¶ pietist tradition. He conducted a number of exploraty journeys to the Chaga people and was the first to report the…

Lesotho

(562 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] is a small mountain kingdom (2000: 30,355 km2; 2.1 million inhabitants; capital: Maseru) surrounded by the Republic of South Africa. Lesotho came into being in the 1820s as a political union (Basutoland) under King Moshoeshoe I, who consolidated the groups of Sotho/Tswana and Nguni speakers fleeing from the Zulu regime. It was constantly in danger of extinction, especially from the Boers from 1850, and became a British protectorate in 1868. From 1966, Lesotho has been independent as a co…

Cripps, Arthur Shearly

(432 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jun 10, 1869, Kent – Aug 1, 1952, Southern Rhodesia), Anglican priest, missionary and campaigner for African political and social rights in the settler-dominated society of colonial Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). An Anglo-Catholic (Anglo-Catholicism), 1901 Cripps was sent by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts to Mashonaland. Later he acquired over 7000 acres of land, where he built a church named Maronda Mashanu (“…

Rwanda

(598 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] a landlocked country in East Africa, with an area of 26,338 km2 and a dense estimated population of 11.1 million (2010). The capital is Kigali. Rwanda is one of the few countries in modern Africa where the overwhelming majority of the population belong to a single ethnic and cultural group. Precolonial Rwanda was a complex society divided into three major groups: the pastoral Tutsi, the rural Hutu, and the Twa, a tribe of hunter-gatherers. A hierarchical system made the Hutu majority (some 9…

Lovedale

(261 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Situated among the Xhosa people, Lovedale Mission, founded in 1826 near the town of Alice in South Africa's Eastern Cape, was named after John Love, secretary of the Glasgow Missionary Society. In 1844 the newly formed Free Church of Scotland took control and developed Lovedale, under William Govan, as one of the foremost educational institutions in Africa for black and white students. In 1866, its new principal, James Stewart, argued for an education more adapted to the social an…

Paton, Alan Stewart

(273 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jan 11, 1903, Pietermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa – Apr 12, 1988, Hillcrest, KwaZulu/Natal), Christian writer and political activist. Of Scottish and English ancestry, Paton converted to Anglican Christianity, which thereafter informed his political and ethical outlook. In 1936 he became the principal of Diepkloof Reformatory, an educational institution for juvenile criminals. The experience of rehabilitating black African youth informed his first and most famous novel, Cry the Beloved Country (1948), which appeared as the National Party came t…

Church Missionary Society

(280 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (CMS) was established in 1799, a product of the evangelical revival movement in the Church of England and of the Abolitionist movement (Abolitionism). Many of the first CMS missionaries were German and Swiss members of the Basel Mission. The CMS pioneered work in India, the Middle East, in Africa, China, Japan, New Zealand, and Canada. H. Venn, secretary of the Society from 1841 to 1872, developed the “three selves policy” (Three-Self Move…

Sierra Leone

(444 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Sierra Leone, presidential republic in West Africa (see map, Africa); the capital city is Freetown; area 71,740 km2, population 5,732,681 (July 2003). Sierra Leone owes its existence as a colonial state to the activities of the British Evangelicals and humanitarian abolitionists (Slavery). In 1787 G. Sharp persuaded the British government to support a colony for black freed slaves from America. Settlers from the Caribbean and Nova Scotia arrived, many of them Baptists or Methodists. Relations with…

Legion of Mary

(458 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] The Maria Legio Church of Kenya, also known as Legio Maria) is one of the largest African Instituted Churches (AICs) to have broken away from the Roman Catholic Church. Its base is in western Kenya, but it extends to the neighboring districts of Tanzania. The majority of adherents belong to the Luo people, but the Church understands itself to be a multi-ethnic community and includes adherents from the Kisii and Luyia peoples. It has parishes in urban areas, including the Kenyan ca…

Uganda

(769 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] ¶ is a land-locked country in the Great Lakes region of East Africa (see map of Africa), with an estimated population of 22 million. The majority belong to Bantu speaking ethnic groups, but there are important Nilotic (Nuer and Dinka) and Sudanic peoples in the North. The staple crops are bananas and millet, with cotton and coffee as cash crops. Cattle keeping has cultural and economic importance. Uganda is named after the kingdom of Buganda, which occupies the central part of what became the British colonial state. From the 1840s, Arab and Swahi…

Moriah (Africa)

(142 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] The Paris Evangelical Missionary Society began its work in Lesotho in 1833. The society founded a number of missions with biblical names: Hebron, Beersheba, Berea, Cana etc. Moriah was the first and most important of them. It was established by Eugene Casalis and was situated to the south-west of Thabo Bosiu. The mission developed into the central educational center of the “Kereke ea Evangeli Lesotho,” which was founded by the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society. This educational…

Scott, Michael

(281 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] (Jul 30, 1907, Lowfield Heath, Sussex – Sep 14, 1983, London), Anglican priest, and campaigner against apartheid in southern Africa. Scott first went to South Africa in 1926 to recover from tuberculosis. He attended theological college in Grahamstown, but was ordained by Bishop G. Bell of Chichester in 1930. His ministry as a curate in London gave him a radical socialist political consciousness. He worked in India from 1937 to 1939. In 1940 he joined the Royal Air Force, before th…

Third World

(8,437 words)

Author(s): Gern, Wolfgang | Ward, Kevin
1. Political, Economic, Social, and Cultural Problems 1.1. Term, Criteria, Groups 1.1.1. The African Caribbean (Martinique) doctor and freedom fighter Frantz Fanon (1961) is thought to have been the author of the term “Third World.” He based it on the Third Estate (i.e., the commoners) in the French Revolution and denoted by it the colonized and underdeveloped countries. I. L. Horowitz (1966) and then D. Nohlen and F. Nuscheler (1982) studied the significance of the term both practically and in terms of th…

Rebmann

(180 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Rebmann, Johannes (16.1.1820 Gerlingen – 4.10.1876 Korntal), ausgebildet an der Basler Mission, wurde 1846 von der Church Missionary Society (CMS) anglik. ordiniert und nach Ostafrika entsandt. Mit J.L. Krapf lebte er in Rabai unter den Mijikenda, im Hinterland Mombasas (Kenia), darauf hoffend, daß sich dieses Volk für das Evangelium empfänglicher zeigen würde als die Suaheli sprechende musl. Bevölkerung an der Küste. R. kam wie Krapf aus pietistischer Tradition. Er leitete eine R…

Quaque

(251 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Quaque, Philip (1741 Cape Coast, Ghana – 17.10.1816 ebd.), erster afrikanischer Anglikanerpriester. 1754 ermöglichte Thomas Thompson, erster Missionar der Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) und Geistlicher der brit. (Sklaven-)Handelsgesellschaft The Castle, dem jungen Sohn eines Häuptlings die Reise nach England, damit er dort eine Ausbildung erhielt. Dort wurde er 1759 getauft und 1765 zum Priester ordiniert. Nach der Rückkehr in sein Heimatland (176…

Ruanda

(566 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] (Rwanda), Binnenstaat in Ostafrika, mit 7,8 Mio. Einwohnern (Stand 2003) auf 26 338 km 2 äußerst dicht besiedelt; Hauptstadt ist Kigali. R. ist eines der wenigen modernen Länder Afrikas, in dem die überwiegende Mehrheit der Bevölkerung einer einzigen ethnischen und kulturellen Gruppe angehört. Das vorkoloniale R. war eine vielschichtige Gesellschaft, die in drei Hauptgruppen geteilt war: Das Hirtenvolk der Tutsi, die bäuerlichen Hutu und das Jägervolk der Twa. Die Hutu bildeten die Mehrhei…

Uganda

(722 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Uganda, Binnenland im großen Seengebiet Ostafrikas (s.  Afrika, Karte). Die Mehrheit der auf 22 Mio. geschätzten Bevölkerung besteht aus Bantu sprechenden Ethnien, doch es gibt wichtige nilotische (Nuer/Dinka) und sudanesische (Sudan) Völker im Norden. Hauptagrarprodukte für den Eigenbedarf sind Bananen und Hirse; Baumwolle und Kaffee sind Verkaufsgüter. Kulturell wie wirtschaftlich von Bedeutung ist die Viehzucht. U. ist nach dem Königreich von Buganda benannt, das den Mittelteil der späteren brit. Kolonie einnahm. Seit den 40er Ja…

Scott

(266 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Scott, Michael (30.7.1907 Lowfield Heath, Sussex – 14.9.1983 London), anglik. Priester und Kämpfer gegen die Apartheid im südlichen Afrika. S. kam 1926 zum ersten Mal nach Südafrika, um sich von einer Tuberkulose zu erholen. Er besuchte das theol. College in Grahamstown, wurde aber 1930 durch Bf. G. Bell von Chichester ordiniert. Sein folgendes Amt als Kurat in London vermittelte ihm ein radikal-sozialistisches polit. Bewußtsein. Von 1937–1939 arbeitete er in Indien. 1940 trat er …

Paton

(277 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Paton, Alan Stewart (11.1.1903 Pietermaritzburg, Natal, Südafrika – 12.4.1988 Hillcrest, KwaZulu/Natal), christl. Schriftsteller und polit. Aktivist. Als Nachkomme schottischer und engl. Vorfahren konvertierte P. schon in jungen Jahren zum anglik. Christentum, das von da an seine polit. und ethische Weltsicht prägte. 1936 wurde er Direktor von Diepkloof Reformatory, einer Erziehungseinrichtung für jugendliche Straftäter. Die Erfahrung bei der Rehabilitierung schwarzer Jugendlicher…

Sierra Leone

(427 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] Sierra Leone, Präsidialrepublik in Westafrika (zur Lage s. Afrika, Karte); Hauptstadt ist Freetown; Fläche 71 740 km 2, 5 732 681 Einwohner (Juli 2003). S.L. verdankt seine Existenz als Kolonialstaat den Aktivitäten brit. Evangelikaler und humanitärer Verfechter der Abschaffung der Sklaverei. 1787 überzeugte G. Sharp die brit. Regierung, eine Kolonie für befreite schwarze Sklaven aus Amerika zu unterstützen. Siedler, viele von ihnen Baptisten oder Methodisten, kamen aus der Karibik und Nova Sc…

United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel

(277 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[English Version] (USPG). Die Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) wurde von Th. Bray als erste Missionsgesellschaft der Church of England gegründet. 1965 vereinigte sie sich mit der Universities' Mission to Central Africa (UMCA, auf Anregung von D. Livingstone 1857 gegründet) zur USPG, die den kath. Flügel der anglik. Kirche repräsentiert. Die urspr. Ziele der SPG waren die Bereitstellung Geistlicher zur Betreuung brit. Siedler und die Missionsarbeit bei der einheimischen Bevölkerung u…

Namibia

(711 words)

Author(s): Nambala, Shekutaamba V.V. | Ward, Kevin
[English Version] I. Allgemein Mit einer Fläche von 824 295 km 2 und 1 826 854 Einwohnern liegt das heutige N. am südwestlichen Rand Afrikas, begrenzt von Angola, Sambia und Simbabwe im Norden, Botswana im Osten, der Republik Südafrika im Süden und Südwesten und dem Atlantik im Westen. N. war seit 1884 Schutzgebiet des Deutschen Reiches, wurde nach dem 1. Weltkrieg an den Völkerbund abgetreten und kam als Mandatsgebiet unter die Verwaltung Südafrikas, von dem es quasi als Teil seines Staatsgebietes beh…
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