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Rubens

(407 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[English Version] Rubens, Peter Paul (28.6.1577 Siegen – 30.5.1640 Antwerpen), flämischer Maler. Sohn eines angesehenen Antwerpener Juristen, der als Reformierter 1568 nach Köln fliehen mußte. Nach dessen Tod kehrte die Mutter 1589 nach Antwerpen und zugleich zum kath. Glauben zurück. Nach einer Lehre u.a. bei Otto van Veen wurde R. 1598 Freimeister der Lukas-Gilde. 1600 Reise nach Italien, wo er in den Dienst der Gonzaga in Mantua eintrat und in deren Auftrag 1603 nach Spanien reiste. Seit 1606 mit…

Vasari

(146 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[English Version] Vasari, Giorgio (30.7.1511 Arezzo – 27.6.1574 Florenz), Maler, Architekt und Kunstschriftsteller. Wirkte in Rom, vornehmlich aber in Florenz (Umbau des Rathauses zum Herzogspalast ab 1555, Bau der Uffizien ab 1560, rigorose »Modernisierung« der ma. Hauptkirchen). V.s Hauptleistung ist sein Vitenwerk ital. Künstler (1550, 21568; s.u.), worin er die Wiedergeburt (rinascità; Renaissance) antiker und natürlicher Schönheit mit Raffael und v.a. mit Michelangelo Buonarroti zur Vollendung gekommen sieht. Es ist das wichtigste k…

Piero della Francesca

(146 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[English Version] (um 1415 Borgo Sansepolcro – 12.10.1492 ebd.), Maler. Nach Lehre wohl in Florenz zunächst für Kirchen der heimatlichen Umgebung, dann in Ferrara, Rimini, später in Urbino für die jeweiligen Stadttyrannen tätig. In Sansepolcro war P. zeitlebens auch in kommunalen Ämtern tätig. Sein Hauptwerk ist der vielteilige Freskenzyklus zur Gesch. der Kreuzauffindung im Chor der Franziskanerkirche in Arezzo (1452–1466). Die Formensprache der Fresken, der Polyptichen, der rätselhaften »Geißelu…

Panofsky

(162 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[English Version] Panofsky, Erwin (30.3.1892 Hannover – 14.3.1968 Princeton, USA), Kunsthistoriker. Studium in Freiburg, Promotion 1915 ebd., 1920 PD, 1926 Ordinarius in Hamburg. Hier entstanden grundlegende Arbeiten unter dem Eindruck von E. Cassirer und Aby Warburg (Warburg-Schule; Die Perspektive als »symbolische Form«, 1927; Hercules am Scheidewege, 1930). 1933 Entlassung und Emigration; seit 1935 am Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Von hier aus weltweite Verbreitung seiner Methode de…

Raffael

(351 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[English Version] (eigentlich Raffaello Santi; wohl 6.4.1483 Urbino – 6.4.1520 Rom), ital. Maler und Architekt. Vermutlich bereits seit 1494 Lehre bei Perugino, Perugia. Ab 1504 Weiterbildung in Florenz; 1508 ging er nach Rom, wo er 1514 Bauleiter des Petersdoms wurde. Seiner großen Werkstatt gehörten u.a. Giulio Romano und Pierino del Vaga an. In die vorröm. Zeit fallen Madonnenbilder (Madonna mit dem Stieglitz, Madonna im Grünen, um 1506/07, beide Florenz, Uffizien; Madonna aus dem Hause Tempi, …

Sassetta

(186 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo; c. 1392, Siena or Cortona – 1450, Siena), Italian painter. Although trained in a local stylistic ambiance, in the early altarpieces he began painting c. 1426 Sasseta already showed that his eye was on the revolutionary developments in Florence. His altarpiece painted for a chapel in Siena Cathedral in 1432 (now in the Pitti Palace, Florence) intoduced animating motifs into the conventional iconography of the Santa Conversazione: an angel making a snowball, individual gestures or limbs extended in three-dimensional spa…

Leonardo da Vinci

(546 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (Apr 15, 1452, near Vinci – May 2, 1519, Amboise), Florentine universal artist, scientist, engineer, and theoretician. Born the illegitimate son of a notary and a young peasant woman, he was apprenticed around 1469 to the painter and sculptor Verrocchio. His drawing of a valley dated Aug 5, 1473, is one of the very earliest landscape pictures. In 1481 Leonardo began an Adoration of the Magi (Florence, Uffizi). Although it remained unfinished, its pyramidal triangular composition coupled with the extremely varied movements and gestures of the fi…

Carpaccio, Vittore

(211 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (c. 1465, Venice – 1525 or 1526, Venice). With G. Bellini, the Italian painter Vittore Carpaccio was a dominant figure in Venetian painting between 1490 and 1510. In 1511 he called himself pittore di stato. The nucleus of his work consists of cycles for the assembly rooms of several Venetian confraternities. The large-scale canvasses incorporate vivid details of everyday life but also the concern of the republic and its leading families in the face of the danger posed by the Turks. In 1490 Car…

Jordaens, Jacob

(291 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (baptized May 20, 1593; died Oct 18, 1678, Antwerp), Flemish painter. Jordaens, the son of a wealthy businessman, often liked to translate the elevated rhetoric of his colleagues, among whom he was particularly close to P.P. Rubens, to a popular, sometimes even vulgar level in his painting. The lively style of his popular, frequently repeated genre paintings ( Satyr among Farmers, Munich, Alte Pinakothek; Just As the Old People Sang, So the Young People Twitter, Berlin, Charlottenburg Castle; The King Drinks, Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum) also marks some …

Rubens, Peter Paul

(504 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (Jun 28, 1577, Siegen – May 30, 1640, Antwerp), Flemish painter. Rubens was the son of an eminent Antwerp jurisprudent, whose Reformed faith forced him to flee to Cologne in 1568. After his father’s death, in 1589 his mother returned to Antwerp and to the Catholic faith. After an apprenticeship with various artists, including Otto van Veen, in 1598 he became an independent master of the Guild of Saint Luke. In 1600 he traveled to Italy, where he entered the service of the Gonzagas…

Piero della Francesca

(176 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (c. 1415, Borgo Sansepolcro – Oct 12, 1492, Borgo Sansepolcro), painter. After his apprenticeship, probably in Florence, Piero worked initially for churches near his home town, then in Ferrara and Rimini, and later in Urbino, commissioned by the local rulers. Throughout his lifetime, he also held various public offices in Sansepolcro. His most important work is the multipart fresco cycle on the discovery of the true cross, painted in the choir of the Franciscan church in Arezzo (1452–1466). The formal vocabulary of the frescoes, the polyptychs, the enigmatic Flagella…

Fra Angelico

(278 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (actually Guido di Pietro; as a monk, Fra Giovanni da Fiesole, also Beato Angelico; c. 1395 near Vecchio, Mugello – Feb 18, 1455, Rome) was an Italian painter and one of the most significant among the numerous monk painters of the early Italian Renaissance (III). He is not attested as a monk of the Dominican friary (Dominicans) of strict observance in Fiesole until 1423. In the Dominican monastery of San Marco in Florence, Fra Angelico and his workshop painted approx. 70 religious scenes in th…

Panofsky, Erwin

(199 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (Mar 30, 1892, Hannover – Mar 14, 1968, Princeton), art historian. Panofsky studied at Freiburg, where he received his doctorate in 1915. He was appointed as a Privatdozent at the University of Hamburg, where he became a full professor in 1926. There, under the influence of E. Cassirer and Aby Warburg (Warburg school), he produced groundbreaking studies, including Die Perspektive als ‘symboli­sche Form’ (1927; ET: Perspective as Symbolic Form, 1991) and Hercules am Scheidewege, 1930. In 1933 he was dismissed and emigrated to the United States, where in…

Weyden, Rogier van der

(446 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (between 1398 and 1400, Tournai – Jun 1464, Brussels), Dutch painter. His relationship to his teacher Robert Campin (Master of Flémaille; c. 1375–1444) has been a matter of controversy to the present day. In 1436 he was made town painter of Brussels. In 1449/1450 he made a pilgrimage to Rome: his painting of the entombment (Florence, ¶ Uffizi, c. 1463/1464) recalls a composition by Fra Angelico, and the layout of his painting of the Madonna with saints (Frankfurt, Städel, c. 1463/1464) recalls the sacra conversazione genre developed in Florence. Unlike J. van Eyc…

Vasari, Giorgio

(186 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (Jul 30, 1511, Arezzo – Jun 27, 1574, Florence), painter, architect, and writer. He worked in Rome but primarily in Florence (remodeling of the town hall to serve as the ducal palace beginning in ¶ 1555, construction of the Uffizi beginning in 1560, radical “modernization” of the major med. churches). His major achievement, however, is his biographical study of Italian artists (1550, 21568; see bibl.; ET: The Lives of the Artists, 1998), in which he sees the rebirth ( rinascità; “Renaissance”) of classical and natural beauty brought to perfection in the work…

Raphael

(387 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (Raffaello Sanzio; probably Apr 6, 1483, Urbino – Apr 6, 1520, Rome), Italian painter and architect. He was probably apprenticed in 1494 to Perugino in Perugia. In 1504 he went to Florence for further training; in 1508 he went to Rome, where in 1514 he succeeded Bramante as supervising architect of the new St. Peter’s Basilica. His extensive workshop included included Giulio Romano and Pierino del Vaga. Several Madonnas embodying the quintessence of naïve devotion antedate his move to Rome ( Madonna of the Goldfinch, Madonna in Green, c. 1506/1507, both in the Uffiz…

Signorelli, Luca

(185 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (c. 1450 – Oct 16, 1523, Cortona), Italian painter. After studying, probably with Piero della Francesca, Signorelli must quickly have become familiar with Florentine art as well. In 1482 he was commissioned to paint a fresco on the life of Moses in the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. The Humanistic atmosphere at the court of Lorenzo de’ Medici inspired his great painting of the god Pan with his entourage (c. 1488; Berlin, destroyed by fire in 1945), the first history painting in wh…

Signorelli

(152 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[English Version] Signorelli, Luca (um 1450–16.10.1523 Cortona), ital. Maler. Nach einer Schulung wohl bei Piero della Francesca muß S. bald auch die Florentiner Kunst kennengelernt haben. 1482 wurde S. mit einem Fresko zum Leben Moses in der Sixtinischen Kapelle im Vatikan beauftragt. Dem humanistischen Ambiente um Lorenzo de' Medici verdankt sich das große Gemälde des Gottes Pan mit Begleitung (um 1488; Berlin, 1945 verbrannt), das erste Historienbild, das ausschließlich Nacktfiguren aufweist. Si…

Sassetta

(174 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[English Version] (eigentlich Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo; um 1392 Siena oder Cortona – 1450 Siena), ital. Maler. Ausgebildet in einem lokalen stilistischen Ambiente, zeigt S. doch schon in seinen frühen Altarbildern seit ca.1426, daß er die umwälzenden Entwicklungen in Florenz im Auge hatte. Das für eine Kapelle in der Sieneser Kathedrale 1432 gemalte Altarwerk (Palazzo Pitti, Florenz) nimmt in das konventionelle Schema der Santa Conversazione belebende Motive auf: einen Engel, der einen Schne…

Weyden

(380 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[English Version] Weyden, Rogier van der (zw. 1398 und 1400 Tournai – 18.6.1464 Brüssel), niederländischer Maler. Das Verhältnis zu seinem Lehrer Robert Campin (Meister von Flémaille; um 1375–1444) wird bis in die jüngste Zeit kontrovers diskutiert. W. wurde 1436 Stadtmaler in Brüssel. 1449/50 unternahm er eine Pilgerreise nach Rom: Das Bild der Grablegung (Florenz, Uffizien, um 1463/64) erinnert an eine Komposition Fra Angelicos und die Anlage des Bildes der Madonna mit Heiligen (Frankfurt, Städel, …