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Theory and Praxis

(4,249 words)

Author(s): Linde, Gesche | Figal, Günter | Westhelle, Vítor | Herms, Eilert | Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences The distinction between theory as a consistent linguistic or symbolic system of ordered statements about a par-¶ ticular subject area or phenomenal domain and practice (praxis) as technical action to produce quantifiable phenomena in an experiment, or at least observation against the background of a theory, is fundamental to the modern natural sciences, although the precise definition of the relationship between the two is disputed and is addressed by the philosophy of science. Usually the relationship between theory and praxis is desc…

Liberation Theology

(3,266 words)

Author(s): Altmann, Walter | Marty, Martin E. | Mourkojannis, Daniel | Westhelle, Vítor
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Systematics I. Church History 1. Latin America, Africa, and Asia a. The birth of liberation theology is usually dated to 1971, when Gutiérrez published his Teologia de la liberación, or 1968, the year of the second Latin American Catholic Bishops' Conference in Medellín, Colombia. The two events represented the culmination of a process that had been underway in Latin America since the 1950s: the spread of the base community movements, which were working for social, political, and economic reforms while promoting within the churches the active involvement of the laity in pastoral activities. The emergence and development of liberation theology constitute an ecumenical phenomenon. During the 1960s, it was encouraged by the influence of Vatican II and a series of meetings of Catholic theologians (the first in Petrópolis, Brazil, in 1964). On the Protestant side, Church and Society in Latin America (ISAL…


(1,399 words)

Author(s): Westhelle, Vítor | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics While the term liberty (Lat. libertas) denotes the state or property of being free, liberation describes the process through which liberty or freedom is achieved. Liberation is the conscious praxis of freedom to achieve freedom from oppression (Freire).…

Religious Socialists

(2,564 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut | Westhelle, Vítor
[German Version] I. Europe European Religious Socialists share the general view that the core statements of Christian faith and ethics have structural affinities to socialism and its politics, and that combining them should bring about the dismantling of old forms of social order and the construction of new ones, appropriate to human needs. Religious Socialists differ in their conceptual parameters, in the significance of this affinity, and in the development of praxis models. 1. Religious Socialism is rooted in biblical social norms, Christian traditions of the Middle Ages and the Reformation, and modern conceptions of social order that have arisen since the Enlightenment and the French Revolution; the historical beginnings go back to the early 19th century, after the beginning of industrialization, when protosocialists such as Charles Fourier and ¶ C.H. de Saint-Simon inspired in Catholic Christians – such as the early H.F.R. de Lamennais, Philippe Joseph Benjamin, and François Huet – the vision of a social order based on the commandments of love of one’s neighbor and of fraternity, for which Huet coined the name “Christian Socialism” as early as the 1830s. In Germany, the social revolutionary W. Weitling established a link to the primitive Christian community of goods in his communist writings; in 1846, K. Marx (Marxism) criticized this as…

Religiöse Sozialisten

(2,191 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut | Westhelle, Vítor
[English Version] I. Europa Die eur. Rel. S. eint die Rahmenvorstellung, daß zw. den Kernaussagen des christl. Glaubens und seiner Ethik und dem Sozialismus und seiner Politik Verwandtschaftsstrukturen bestehen, deren Verbindung die Überwindung der alten und den Aufbau von neuen, menschengerechten Gesellschaftsordnungen bewirken soll. Die Rel. S. unterscheiden s…

Theorie und Praxis

(3,910 words)

Author(s): Linde, Gesche | Figal, Günter | Westhelle, Vítor | Herms, Eilert | Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[English Version] I. Naturwissenschaftlich Die Unterscheidung zw. Th. als einem widerspruchsfreien sprachlichen oder symbolischen System geordneter Aussagen über einen bestimmten Gegenstands- bzw. Phänomenbereich und P. als technischem Handeln zur Erzeugung von quantifizierbaren Phänomenen im Experiment, mindestens aber Beobachtung vor dem Hintergrund …