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Hirtia

(98 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Sister of  Hirtius. In 46 BC she was evidently offered by her brother to Cicero as a possible wife after his divorce from Terentia. Cicero declined on the grounds that marriage and philosophy are incompatible (Hieron. Adversus Iovinianum 1,48), and married the young and rich Publilia. H. is probably alluded to in a letter written by Cicero (Att. 12,11) dated November 46 BC, in which he informs Atticus that he had never seen anything so ugly ( nihil vidi foedius). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography J. Kerschensteiner, Cicero und Hirtius, in: FS S. Lauffer, vol. 2,…

Furfanius Postumus, T.

(65 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] In 52 BC, judge in the case against Annius [I 14] Milo (Cic. Mil. 75) regarding the murder of  Clodius [I 4]. Praetor perhaps already in 55 or earlier ([1. 268f.]; MRR 2,295: 46 [?]), promagistrate in Sicily 50-49, proconsul there as well in 45 (MRR 3,96). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, The lex annalis under Caesar, in: Phoenix 25, 1971, 246-271.

Proteas

(178 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Πρωτέας/ Prōtéas). Son of Andronicus, Macedonian, probably the same as P., the son of Lanice, nurse of Alexander [4] the Great. In 334/3 BC, by order of Antipater [1] he gathered ships off Euboea and the Peloponnese to protect the islands and mainland. In early summer 333, he succeeded in surprising a Persian forward unit under Datames off the island of Siphnos and capturing eight of its ten ships (Arr. Anab. 2,2,4-5). To do so, P. covered over 120 nautical miles in two night sail…

Vercingetorix

(616 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Celt from the people of the Arverni, born in c. 82 BC. His father Celtillus, whom the Romans considered the 'first man' ( princeps) in all of Gaul, was - like Arminius - murdered by members of his tribe, because he aspired to be king (Caes. B Gall. 7,4,1). Knowledge of V. is concentrated entirely on the year 52 BC; the main source, Caesar (= C.), is problematic, because he personalizes the Celtic resistance in V. and does not confront V. without Roman prejudices when recognizing his military performanc…

Paralus

(47 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Πάραλος; Páralos). [German version] [1] Son of Pericles Son of Pericles [1] from his first marriage. He died of the plague in 430/429 BC (Plut. Pericles 36,8). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] (Athenian ship of state), see Salaminia (Athenian ship of state) see Salaminia

Allienus

(78 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] From 61 to 59 BC legate of Q. Tullius Cicero in Asia (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,1,10), in 55 tribunus plebis (MRR 2, 217), in 49 praetor (Cic. Fam. 10,15,3), 48-46 procos. in Sicilia (MRR 2, 275; 288; 296). In this function he supported  Caesar during his African campaign in January 46 with troops (Bell. Afr. 34,4). In 44/43 he was first legate of Trebonius, then of Dolabella (MRR 2, 352). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Lysicles

(112 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Λυσικλῆς; Lysiklês). L. was a friend of Pericles and like the latter supported aggressive Athenian policy in relation to Sparta (Aristoph. Equ. 765: predecessor of Cleon). A L. was (in 432 BC ?) the petitioner for a decree regarding naval weapons and regarding Apollo of Delos (IG I2 128 l. 3; supplements in SEG 21, 37, IG I3 130a). After 429 BC, L. married Pericles' widow Aspasia (Plut. Pericles 24), in 428/7 as a strategos he fell in battle in Caria (Thuc. 3,19,1f.). Aristophanes has him appear in the ‘Equites’ as a small cattle wholesaler (Aristoph. Equ. 132 with schol.). Wil…

Ariovistus

(676 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] King of a Germanic people. Plin. HN 2,170 calls him (without explicitly mentioning the name A.) rex Sueborum, Mela 3,45 rex Botorum (= Nep. F 29), Caes. B. Gall. 1,31,10 and Front. Strat. 2,1,16 rex Germanorum and Liv. per. 104 dux. The Roman terms are imprecise (the term Suebi was only a collective designation for Germanic tribes on the right Rhine bank, the Boti are unknown), maybe A. was a ruler of the Triboci, who lived in Alsace and the Palatinate [2. 510: Tribocorum instead of Botorum]. Our knowledge depends almos…

Bucilianus

(38 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Participant in the conspiracy against Caesar (App. B Civ. 2,474; 493). Briefly mentioned in Cicero (Att. 16,4,4; 15,17,2) in connection with his plans to flee in the summer of 44 BC. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Iccius

(54 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Ruler of the  Remi ( primus civitatis), allied with Rome since 57 BC; in the same year, as he was in command of Bibrax, he held the city against an assault by the Belgae until the arrival of assistance from Rome (Caes. B Gall. 2,3,1; 6,4; 7,1).  Caesar Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Tolmides

(118 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Τολμίδης/ Tolmídēs). Son of Tolmaeus, Athenian stratēgós in the years 457-455, 452, 451, 448 and 447 BC [1. 75 ff.]. After the murder of Ephialtes [2], in the 450s T. became the most important democratic politician and exponent of an aggressive naval league policy (Delian League). T.' often assumed political independence from Pericles [1] is an anachronism (cf. Plut. Pericles 16,3). In 456/5, T. commanded a successful naval operation against the Peloponnese (Thuc. 1,108), in 447 he settled Attic klēroûchoi on Euboea, Naxos and probably …

Hegesaretus

(45 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Ἡγησάρετος; Hēgēsáretos). Thessalian from Larissa, described as princeps civitatis by Cicero in a letter of recommendation from the year 46 BC (Fam. 13,25). Leader of the Pompeian factio in Thessaly (Caes. B Civ. 3,35,2). Presumably pardoned by Caesar. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Actorius

(44 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] A. Naso, M., author of a work about  Caesar and his time. This work was obviously directed against Caesar, accused him of participating in the so-called first Catiline conspiracy and also contained gossip (Suet. Iul. 9,3; 52,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Hirtius, Aulus

(470 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] H.'s early career is shrouded in mystery. He probably served as a legate in Gallia from c. 54 (Cic. Fam. 16,27,1-2). He became a devoted follower of Caesar, to whom he owed his further advancement (Cic. Phil. 13,24). In 49 he accompanied Caesar to Spain, in 47 he stayed with him in Antioch; apart from that he defended Caesar's interests in Rome. The office of people's tribune in 48 is not certain. His introduction of a law aimed against the followers of Pompey ( rogatio Hirtia, CIL I2 2,604), later to be abolished (Cic. Phil. 13,32), must fall into the year 46, when…

Bogudes

(237 words)

Author(s): Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Ruler of east Mauretania, 81 BC Son of and…

Ampius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] C., praef. socium 201 BC C., praef. socium 201 BC (Liv. 31,2,5-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Balbus, T., Praetor 59 BC, historian Balbus, T., tribunus plebis 63 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,40,4), praetor 59, finally procos. in Asia (MRR 2, 197). After his return he was an unsuccessful candidate for the consulate in 55 (schol. Bob. 156St.), in the Civil War he fought on the side of Pompey ( Pompeius), for whom he had already as tribunus plebis especially applied himself and who therefore had supported him when he ran for con…

Agariste

(126 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Ἀγαρίστη; Agarístē). [German version] [1] Mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens (6th cent. BC) Daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, wife of the Alcmaeonid  Megacles, mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens. The story of the long courtship before her marriage around 575 BC can be regarded as the paradigmatic depiction of the lifestyle of the archaic aristocracy (Hdt. 6,126 ff.).  Aristocracy Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography E. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Adelskultur und Polisges., 1989, 117-119. [German version] [2] Athenian, mother of Pericles Athenian, great-grandda…

Aurunculeius

(268 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian gentile name (extension of Aurunceius, ThlL 2,1532f. [1. 354]); there are records of the family in Rome from the 3rd cent. BC, but they ceased to have any significance during the imperial time. [German version] [1] A., C. Praetor in 209 BC in Sardinina and propraetor in 208 Praetor in 209 BC in Sardinina and propraetor in 208 (MRR 1,285; 291). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., L. Praetor urbanus in 190 BC …

Carrinas

(416 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name, presumably of Etruscan origin (in Greek also Καρείνας, Καρρείνας; Kareínas, Karreínas), reliably attested from the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 2,209f.). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Follower of Marius Follower of Marius, in the Civil War sent to Picenum against  Pompeius in 83 BC (Plut. Pompeius 7); he was praetor in 82 BC , and suffered a number of defeats in northern and central Italy. After the flight of the consul Cn.  Papirius Carbo to Africa, the remaining Marian military leaders united their troops with the Samn…

Thucydides

(2,974 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | S.HO.
(Θουκυδίδης/ Thoukydídēs). [German version] [1] Son-in-law of Cimon [2], 5th cent. BC Son of Melesias, son-in-law of Cimon [2] (Schol. Aristid. 46), Athenian politician from the Alopece deme. Represented the oligarchs from the mid-450s, at least from 449. Plutarch made him the embodiment of the political forces opposing Pericles [1] (Plut. Pericles 6,2 f.; 8,5; 11; 14; Fab. Max. 30,2). T. attacked Athenian building policies, because, being linked with a social welfare and employment programme, t…

Duronius

(202 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, from Durnius (Schulze, 160; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [1] D., C. Friend of Annius Milo, 1st cent. BC Friend ( amicissimus) of Annius [I 14] Milo, whom he helped during or after his trial for the murder of  Clodius [I 4]. Cic. Att. 5,8,2f. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] D., L. Praetor in Apulia 181 BC 181 BC praetor in Apulia. When Tarentum and Brundisium complained about piracy, he received the praetorship of Istria additionally, and thus probably the task of protecting the Adriatic coast …

Calidius

(260 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested in Rome from the 1st cent. BC (Schulze, 138; ThlL, Onom. 81f.). [German version] [1] C., M. Mint master in 117 or 116 BC Mint master in 117 or 116 BC (RRC 284), perhaps later praetor or propraetor (IG VII 18, Z. 14). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., M. Praetor in 57 BC Praetor in 57 BC; as such he supported Cicero's return from exile (Cic. P. Red. Sen. 22), and on this occasion probably gave the speech De domo Ciceronis (Quint. Inst. 10,1,23). In 52 BC, he took up the cause of T. Annius [I 14] Milo, the murderer of  Clodius Pulcher (Ascon. 34 Z. 17C). He was unsuccessful in attaining the consulate in 51 and 50 BC (Cic. Att. 5,19,3; 6,8,3). In 49 BC, C. went over to Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 1,2,3), who in the same year entrusted him with the administration of Gallia Cisalpina. C. died in Placentia, possibly in 47 BC (MRR 2, 280). For his importance as an orator see Cic. Brut. 274-…

Pericles

(2,303 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Περικλῆς; Periklês). [German version] [1] Athenian Politician Athenian politician. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] A. Descent and early career …

Fundanius

(320 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Widespread Roman plebeian gentes name (Schulze 357, 533, 542). [German version] [1] F., C. Plebeian tribune in 68 BC Plebeian tribune in 68 BC (?), one of the originators of the l…

Eucrates

(122 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης; Eukrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 432/1 BC Athenian strategos in 432/1 BC (IG I3 365.5), participated in a campaign to Macedonia. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2…

Canuleius

(321 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Name of a plebeian gens, attested from the 5th cent. BC (variant Canoleius; Greek Κανουλήϊος; Kanoulḗïos); from the 1st cent. AD, the name becomes rare (ThlL, Onom. 2,148f.). [German version] [1] C., C. Tribunus plebis 445 BC tribunus plebis of 445 BC, who is said to have introduced a plebiscitum Canuleium de conubio, repealing the bar to marriage between patricians and plebeians (Cic. Rep. 2,63; Liv. 4,1,1-6). As it is hard to imagine that a people's tribune of the 5th cent. BC could so decisively intervene in the legislative process, the reliab…

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. …

Caesar

(5,998 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
I. Historical [German version] A. Youth and early career C. Iulius Caesar was born in 100 BC on the 13th of Quintilis (from 44 BC: Iulius/July); his mother was Aurelia, a daughter of L. Aurelius Cotta ( cos. 119 BC; [1. 327]). His father became praetor in 92 BC, and died 85 BC. Nothing is known of C.'s childhood and early youth. As it was the custom for the Roman aristocracy, C., too, presumably spent his first years in the care of his mother, followed between the ages of 7 and 15 by elementary schooling and grammatical tuition (G…

Ancharius

(125 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Q., praetor 56 BC Q., 73 BC legate in Greece (Syll.3 748), 65 (?) proquaestor in Macedonia (IvOl 328). As tribune of the people, 59 he opposed the politics of the consul  Caesar together with his colleague Bibulus (Cic. Sest. 113; Vatin. 16; Cass. Dio 38,6,1: schol. Bob. 135, 146St.). After the praetorship of 56 followed the proconsulate in Maedonia (Cic. Fam. 13,40) Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] C. Rufus (1st half of 1st cent. BC) C., Rufus from Fulginae, accuser (?) of L. Varenus c. 80 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Priscus (1st …

Aristius

(95 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name (ThLL 2,646 f.) [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] M., military tribune 52 BC A., M., military tribune in Caesar's army during the Gallic uprising of 52 BC (Caes. B. Gall. 7,42,5; 43,1). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Fuscus, poet and grammaticus (1st cent. BC) A., Fuscus, poet and grammaticus, close friend and critic of  Horatius, who dedicated Carm. 1,22 and Epist. 1,10 to him. Sat. 1,9,61-74 shows his sense of humour. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography R. G. M. Nisbet, M. Hubbard, A Commentary on Horace: Odes, Book 1…

Euphranor

(302 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Εὐφράνωρ; Euphránōr). [German version] [1] Sculptor, painter and art critic in Athens, c. 364-361 BC Important sculptor, painter and art critic ( Art, theory of) in Athens with his acme in 364-361 BC. As paintings the ‘Battle of Mantinea’ (362 BC), the ‘Apotheosis of Theseus’ and ‘Twelve Gods in the Stoa Eleutherios’ are described and ‘Democracy and Demos’ and ‘Odysseus’ are mentioned. E. described his ‘Theseus’ as ‘meat-nourished’ in contrast to the ‘rose-nourished’ one by  Parrhasius. Ancient art critics emphasized the versatility and dignitas of his representation of the …

Dracontides

(167 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Δρακοντίδης; Drakontídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, son of Leogoras from the deme Thorae; in 446/5 BC epistátēs, in 433/2 stratēgós and in that capacity one of the commanders of a relief fleet for Cercyra in the autumn of 433 (cf. Thuc. 1,51,4; on the corruption of the text at that point see [1. 95]). D. was a bitter opponent of Pericles and in 430 aided in his removal (Plut. Pericles 32,3) [2]. Davies 4551. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) …

Arrius

(618 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin gentile name of Italian origin. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Made fun of by Catull (Carm. 84) due to affected pronunciation. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., C. Neighbour of Cicero Neighbour of Cicero at his Formianum (Cic. Att. 2.14.2; 15.3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] A., L. City praetor of Cales City praetor of Cales (ILLRP 560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 4] A., Q. Praetor in 73 BC Praetor in 73 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 422-423. …

Ap(p)uleius

(3,219 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmerman, Maaike (Groningen)
Plebeian gentile name (on form and distribution [1], ThLL 2, 291). The poet  Apuleius [III, of Madaura] I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A. Real-estate dealer (1st cent. BC) Late Republican real-estate dealer (

Attius

(775 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, verifiable since the 2nd cent. BC, in the older form Atius, in the MSS often confused with Accius (on the origin and spread, Schulze 68; 423; 551; ThlL 2,1169-71). The gens first achieved prominence with  Atia, the mother of the emperor Augustus. Early imperial pseudo-genealogy therefore invented an ancestor Atys (Verg. Aen. 5,568 Atys, genus unde Atii duxere Latini). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A. Balbus, M. Grandfather of Augustus Brother-in-law of Caesar ( Iulia) and grandfather of Augustus ( Atia [1]). …

Drusus

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Initially cognomen in the gens  Livia (ThlL, Onom. 3,256-260). According to Suet. Tib. 3,2, an otherwise unknown Livius (in the 3rd cent. BC) assumed the epithet, after he had won a duel with the Celtic leader Drausus, and passed it on to his family. Through  Livia's first marriage, with Ti. Claudius [I 19] Nero, the cognomen passed into the Claudian branch of the domus Augusta through her son Nero Claudius [II 24] (D. Maior), brother of the second Princeps  Tiberius; D. appears in the name of the son of D. Maior,  Germanicus, of the latter's son D. [II 2], of the son of Tiberius (D.…

Furnius

(230 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian family name, perhaps connected with Etruscan furnial (Schulze 217, with epigraphical evidence). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] F., C. People's tribune 50 BC, orator …

Annius

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin, in Rome a plebeian gentilicium, which also occurs in Etruscan and Oscan inscriptions [1]. The Etruscan king Anius, after whom the  Anio was supposedly named (Plut. Mor. 315E-F), is a scholarly invention. In Rome Annii were active from the 3rd cent. BC in public life, produced in the 2nd cent. from the family of the Lusci two consuls and were notorious in the 1st cent. because of T.  A. [14] Milo. In the imperial era the name is widespread, various families are present (e.g. cognomina: Bas…

Labienus

(862 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Nomen gentile of Etruscan origin; the family, which belonged to Rome's equestrian class, came from northern Picenum (Cic. Rab. perd. 22; Caes. B Civ. 1,15,2). [German version] [1] L., Q. Slain in the Curia c. 100 BC Uncle of L. [3], supported L. Ap(p)uleius [I 11] Saturninus in 100 BC and was slain at his side in the Curia on the Forum Romanum (Cic. Rab. perd. 14; 18; 20-22; Oros. 5,17,9). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [German version] [2] L. (Parthicus), Q. Commander in Asia Minor and Armenia c. 40 BC Son of L. [3]. At the end of 43 BC he undertook treaty negotiations at the behest of the m…

Acilius

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Gentilicium of a plebeian gens, verifiable from the 3rd cent. BC. The most important branches are the Aviolae (imperial era), Balbi and especially the Glabriones, who are documented from the 3rd cent. BC to the end of the 5th cent. AD [1]. In Rome there was a compitum Acilium, on which the first Greek doctor in Rome was settled in 219 (Plin. HN 29,12 [2. 98]), on the Pincio the horti Aciliorum, in the imperial era the most famous gardens of Rome [2. 195 f.; 3. 488 ff.]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] Soldier in Caesar's tenth legion Brave soldier in Ca…

Aurelius

(2,999 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Widespread plebeian gentilicium (ThlL 2,1482-87), which in ancient etymology is derived from Sabine and was derived via the older form Auselius from sol (sun) (Fest. p. 22; from this the modern derivation from the Sabine * ausel over Etruscan usil ‘Sun god’, cf. [1. 36; 2. 468]). The family attained noble status in the 1st Punic War with Aur. [3] and provides numerous consuls in the 2nd cent. BC from the branches of the Cottae, Orestae and Scauri. This, however, does not completely explain the building stages and assignment of various viae Aureliae in the 2nd cent. [3; 4]. The late R…

Ateius

(581 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Italic proper name [1. 347, 426], traceable in the public life of Rome since the 1st cent. BC, not very common. [German version] [1] A. Legate of M. Antonius in Gaul, 41/40 BC Legate (?) of M.  Antonius in Gallia in 41/40 BC (MRR 3,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., M. Centurio during the storming of Athens in 86 BC centurio, distinguished himself during the storming of Athens in 86 BC (Plut. Sull. 14,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze. [German version] [3] A. Capito, C. Tribunus plebis 55 BC Fought as tribunus plebis from 55 BC together with…

Fufius

(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a plebeian family [1], perhaps from Cales, politically active from the 3rd cent. BC. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] People's tribune in the mid-2nd cent. BC People's tribune (?) in the mid-2nd cent. BC, otherwise unknown author of a lex Fufia on the fixing of permissible days for public assemblies (usually mentioned together with the lex Aelia,  Aelius [I 1]). MRR 1,452f.; 3,3f. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] F., L. Rom. orator in the 1st cent. BC Known as an orator in the 90s of the 1st cent. BC. Around 97 his speech in the prosecu…

Caecina

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
Roman family name of Etruscan origin ( Ceicna, Schulze, 75, 285, 567; ThlL, Onom. 15f.), whose bearers belonged to the city aristocracy of Volaterrae (cf. Cic. Fam. 6,6,9), where the family is attested in several branches and partly through richly adorned graves. (CIE 18-24; 36-42 et al.). The lineage appeared in Rome from the 1st cent. BC, but never lost its links with its homeland (cognomen Tuscus in C. [II 9]); villa of the Roman city prefect of AD 414, Caecina Decius Atinatius Albinus, (PLRE 1, 50)…

Hagnon

(282 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἅγνων; Hágnōn). [German version] [1] Strategos in Athens, 5th cent. BC Father of Theramenes [1. 191], in 440 BC stratēgós in the war of Athens against rebellious Samos (Thuc. 1,117,2). H. founded Amphipolis in 437/6 (Thuc. 4,102,3; 5,11,1). At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War he held the office of strategos again in 431/0 and 429/8 (Thuc. 2,58,1; 6,31,2; 2,95,3 [2. 117, 121]). According to Plutarch (Pericles 32) he was one of the opponents of  Pericles. In April 421 he signed, among other things, the peace treaty (Peace of Nicias) betwe…

Lollius

(1,733 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family. Bearers of the name, recorded from the 3rd cent. BC, not of urban Roman origin, emerged as business people from the 2nd cent. (ILLRP 723b; 747; 1025) and received Roman citizenship perhaps only after the Social War [3]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., L. Proscribed in 82 BC Read his name on one of Sulla's lists of proscribed persons in 82 BC and was thereupon immediately killed on leaving the Forum (Oros. 5,21,4f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., L. Pompey's legate against the pirates in 67 BC Pompey'…

Androsthenes

(244 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] See > Olympionikai see  Olympionikai Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Commander of  Philippus V in the second Macedonian War Commander of  Philippus V in the second Macedonian War, held Corinth despite being defeated in Nemea by the Achaeans under  Nicostratus (Liv. 33,14,1; 15). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] General of the Thessalian League (middle of the 1st cent. BC) General of the Thessalian League ( praetor Thessaliae); after Caesar's defeat at Dyrrhachium, he joined  Pompeius and attempted to defend …

Alfius

(360 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] Historian, 1st cent. BC 1st cent. BC, published a work of history or epic probably about the first Punic war ( bellum Carthaginiense Fest. 158 M), perhaps identical to no. 5 [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Banker Banker (Hor. Epod. 2,67). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Marius, 2nd half of 3rd cent. BC Marius, Campanian, fell in 215 BC fighting against Rome (Liv. 23,35,13; 19). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schanz/Hosius, 1, 202. [German version] [4] Avitus Latin poet of the 2nd/3rd…

Aemilius

(4,870 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Nomen gentile Name of a very old patrician line (more often written Aimilius), after which the tribus Aemilia, one of the oldest rustic tribes, is also named. Republican pseudo-genealogy traced the gens back to Mamercus, said to be the son of Pythagoras or of Numa, or to Trojan ancestors: Aemilia, a daughter of Aeneas; Aimylos, a son of Ascanius; or to King Amulius himself (Plut. Aemilius 2; Numa 8; Romulus 2; Fest. 22 L; Sil. Pun. 8,294-296) [1]. The Aemilii belonged to one of the most respected lines in the R…

Antistius

(1,814 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. Greek Epigrammatic poet Epigrammatic poet; although it is not possible to be certain, because the name is fairly common, A. is usually equated with the Macedonian C. Antistius Vetus, who in AD 11 was sent into exile because of treason (Tac. Ann. 3,38), or with the praetor A. Sosianus, who suffered the same destiny in AD 62 (Reason: factitatis in Neronem carminibus probrosiis... Tac. Ann. 14,48; 16,14; 21; cf. Hist. 4,44). His four epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus are balanced, elegant variations of traditional motives…
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