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Prelate

(215 words)

Author(s): Winter, Jörg
“Prelate” (Ger. Prälat) is a legal term in the Roman Catholic Church to describe all who hold leading offices of different ranking in the church, including honorary prelates without jurisdiction. The term derives from Lat. praelatus, a participle of praefero, here in the sense of giving preference or putting at the head. In the regional churches of Baden and Württemberg, in southern Germany, the title “prelate” originally designated, not a specific church office, but membership in a regional diet, later the Parliament of a federal state. Curren…

Administrative Union

(316 words)

Author(s): Winter, Jörg
[German Version] This concept has its origin in the efforts to overcome the confessional schism of German Protestantism at the beginning of the 19th century. The aspired union (Unions, Church) between the Lutheran and the Reformed confessional churches was realized in various ways, either in the form of a confessional …

Verwaltungsunion

(280 words)

Author(s): Winter, Jörg
[English Version] . Der Begriff V. gehört in den Zusammenhang der Bemühungen um eine Überwindung der konfessionellen Spaltung im dt. Protestantismus zu Beginn des 19.Jh. Die angestrebte Union (Unionen, kirchliche: I.) zw. den luth. und ref. Bekenntniskirchen vollzog sich in unterschiedlicher Weise, nämlich entweder in der Form der Bekenntnisunion (»Konsensunion«), mit einem einheitlichen unierten Bekenntnisstand der Landeskirche (z.B. Baden seit 1821), oder in der Form der V., die auf einen Lehrko…

Unions, Church

(3,878 words)

Author(s): Nüssel, Friederike | Best, Thomas F. | Winter, Jörg
[German Version] I. Germany and Europe The term “church unions” refers to mergers of churches of previously separate confessions. They take place at the institutional level, are based on a common foundation of confession of faith and doctrine (II), and have a common office. In Europe, on the one hand, there are various Eastern churches (Unions with Rome) united with Rome that belong to the Roman Catholic Church and acknowledge the primacy of the pope, but have retained their Orthodox liturgy and spiri…

Unionen, kirchliche

(3,525 words)

Author(s): Nüssel, Friederike | Best, Thomas F. | Winter, Jörg
[English Version] I. Deutschland und Europa Unter kirchl. U. versteht man Zusammenschlüsse von zuvor konfessionell getrennten Kirchen. Sie werden auf institutioneller Ebene vollzogen, basieren auf einer gemeinsamen Bekenntnis- (Bekenntnis) und Lehrgrundlage (Lehre: II.) und haben ein gemeinsames Amt. In Europa gibt es zum einen verschiedene mit Rom unierte Ostkirchen (Unionen mit Rom), die zur röm.-kath. Kirche gehören, den Primat des Papstes anerkennen, aber ihre orth. Liturgie und Spiritualität sow…

Visitation

(847 words)

Author(s): Bromiley, Geoffrey W. | Winter, Jörg | Venables, Mary Noll
1. Biblical The words “visit” and “visitation” often indicate divine involvement with humans, sometimes by way of theophany. God not only observes human life, he also acts in our world. God’s visitation may bring blessing to God’s own people or to the whole earth (Ps. 65:9). More often, divine visitation punishes offenses, as in Job 35:15 and Ps. 59:5 (KJV). The Decalogue contains the familiar reference to God “visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children” (Exod. 20:5 RSV). Isaiah 26:14 (RSV) tells us that God will visit with destruction. ¶ The idea of visitation for punishme…

Trauung

(3,649 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra | Grethlein, Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Steck, Wolfgang | Winter, Jörg | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich Das Wort »T.« bzw. »trauen« wird im dt. Sprachraum seit dem 13.Jh. auch im Sinne von »anvertrauen«, »ehelich verbinden«, urspr. »dem Manne zur Frau geben« verwendet. Im christl. Kontext wurde die Vermählung bis ins MA als weltl. Akt betrachtet, bevor die Ehe zum Sakrament erklärt wurde (1184). In vielen Rel. wird die Ehe als rel. Pflicht angesehen, und die Hochzeitsriten (rite de passage/rite de confirmation; s.u. III.) haben häufig einen geheiligten Char…

Marriage Ceremonies

(4,074 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra | Grethlein, Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Steck, Wolfgang | Winter, Jörg | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Church History – III. Practical Theology – IV. Liturgics – V. Law – VI. Orthodox Church – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religion In Christendom marriage was considered a secular act until well into the Middle Ages, before it was declared a sacrament in 1184. Many religions view marriage as a religious duty, and nuptial rites (Rites of passage; see III below) often have sacral character, but civil marriages are also obligatory in certain countries. Regulations gover…