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Bihlmeyer, Karl

(175 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Jul 7, 1874, Aulendorf – Mar 27, 1942, Tübingen), Catholic theologian, studied at Tübingen, was ordained as a priest in 1897, tutor at the Wilhelmstift in 1900, followed F.X. Funk as church historian at the Catholic Theological Faculty of Tübingen in 1907, became professor (Ordinarius) in 1916, and declined an invitation to go to Bonn in 1928. …

Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza

(344 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Nov 28, 1607, Rome – Jun 5, 1667, Rome), cardinal, polymath, and historian of the Council of Trent. After studying theology at the Collegium Romanum, Pallavicino first pursued a successful career in church administration ( Referendarius utriusque signaturae; member of various congregations including the Sanctum Officium [Inquisition] andthe commission to assess the writings of C. Jansen). In 1632 he fell out of favor with Urban VIII and became ¶ governor of Jesi, Orvieto, and Camerino. His entry in 1637 into the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) enabled …

Beckx, Pierre Jean

(181 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1795, Sichem, Brabant – Mar 4, 1887, Rome), 1819 ordination as priest in Mecheln and entry into the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in Hildesheim, seminary professor for church law from 1823 to 1826 in Hildesheim, then father confessor of Duke Ferdinand of Anhalt-Köthen, thereafter of his widow Julia in Vienna from 1830 to 1848. He then became rector of the Jesuit stu…

Ketteler, Wilhelm Emmanuel (Baron)

(570 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1811, Münster – Jul 13, 1877, Burghausen). Ketteler, born into an aristocratic Westphalian family, was one of the most prominent representatives of the German episcopate in the 19th century; called the “worker bishop,” he is remembered for his efforts to integrate Catholics into the predominantly Protestant German Empire founded in 1871. His stance on ecclesiastical politics is hard to define. Having studied law (among other things) at Göttingen and Heidelberg since 1835,…


(400 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] 1. Generally and non-polemically, Hermesianism refers to the anti-Enlightenment, rather conservative doctrine of G. Hermes, which was considered absolutely orthodox and an expression of a middle-class Catholicism (Weber) during his lifetime, which was largely dominant in Catholic Prussia, and which must be seen as an important 19th-century approach in Catholic theology. 2. Hermesianism was first employed as a combat theological term in 1832. It refers to an anti-clerical doctrinal system from (semi-)rationalism and skepticism that…


(452 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] Roman Catholic antimodernism finds its authentic expression in the authoritative condemnation of modernism under Pius X in the decree Lamentabili, the encyclical Pascendi of 1907 ( DH 3401–3466, 3475–3500), and the antimodernist oath of 1910 ( DH 3537–355), which was binding on all clergy until 1967. The polemic concept of a systematic “modernism,” defined on the basis of neoscholasticism, made it possible in principle to cast suspic…

Dechamps, Victor-Auguste-Isidore

(202 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1810, Melle near Ghent – Sep 29, 1883, Mechelen) was ordained priest in 1834 and joined the Redemptorists (CSsR) in 1835, religious instructor of the children of Leopold I of Belgium. In 1865, he became bishop of Namur, and in 1867 archbishop of Mechelen and primate of Belgium. He was elevated to cardinal in 1875. Theologically, Dechamps based faith on two elements: le fait intérieur (the dynamic of human will and knowledge, which leaves human beings unfulfilled and opens them to God) and le fait extérieur (the church, in whose notae ecclesiae


(464 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[English Version] Sailer, Johann Michael (17.11.1751 Aresing bei Schrobenhausen – 20.5.1832 Regensburg), kath. Theologe und Bf. Nach Studium in Ingolstadt ab 1770 (bis zur Aufhebung der Societas Jesu 1773 als Jesuitennovize) und Priesterweihe 1775 schlug S. dort die akademische Laufbahn ein und wurde 1780 zweiter Prof. der Dogmatik (neben seinem Lehrer B. Stattler), doch bereits 1781 mit den anderen Exjesuiten als »Obskurant« entlassen. Die Professur für Moral- und Pastoraltheol. in Dillingen (ab 17…

Kuhn, Johannes Evangelist (von)

(307 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Feb 20, 1806, Wäschenbeuren – May 8, 1887, Tübingen), Roman Catholic theologian, 1832–1836 professor of exegesis at Gießen, 1837–1882 professor of exegesis (to 1855) and dogmatics at Tübingen. During the Vormärz , Kuhn and K. von Hefele led the Ultramontanist movement (Ultramontanism) against the state church administration in Württemberg. As a member of the Landtag from 1848 to 1852, Kuhn made the moderate Ultramontanists acceptable at court. He rejected the separation of church and state a…

Hermes, Georg

(579 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Apr 22, 1775, Dreierwalde – May 26, 1831, Bonn), one of Germany's most important Catholic philosophers and theologians in the 19th century. ¶ Rome's posthumous rejection of his writings in 1835 assured Hermes's fame far beyond his death. From 1792 to 1798 he studied, was ordained a priest in 1798, and taught at a Gymnasium in Münster 1799–1807. His Untersuchung über die Wahrheit des Christentums [Investigation of the truth of Christianity] (1805), in which he dealt with I. Kant's criticism, primarily Kant's challenge of the notion that truth …

Pius VI.

(304 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[English Version] Pius VI., Papst 15.2.1775 – 29.8.1799 (Giovanni Angelo Braschi; geb. 25.12.1717 Cesena). Das lange Pontifikat P.' kennzeichnet den Tiefpunkt päpstl. Macht und Autorität in der Neuzeit. Nach juristischen Studien stand P. seit 1740 im kurialen Dienst; 1758 Weihe; 1766 Schatzmeister der Apostolischen Kammer; 1773 Kardinal. Nach dem Tod Clemens XIV. wählte man ihn nach viermonatigem Konklave als Zelanti-Kandidat zum Papst. Am 21./22.2.1775 folgten Bischofsweihe und Papstkrönung. Der F…


(306 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[English Version] Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza (28.11.1607 Rom – 5.6.1667 ebd.), Kardinal, Universalgelehrter und Geschichtsschreiber des Konzils von Trient (Tridentinum); P. schlug nach dem Theologiestudium am Collegium Romanum zunächst erfolgreich die kirchl. Beamtenlaufbahn ein (Referendarius utriusque signaturae; Mitglied diverser Kongregationen wie u.a. des Sanctum Officium [Inquisition] und der Kommission für die Beurteilung der Schriften von C. Jansen). 1632 fiel er bei Urban VIII. in Ungnade u…

Lortz, Josef

(199 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Dec 13, 1887, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg – Feb 21, 1975, Luxembourg), Catholic church historian. After studying in Rome, Fribourg (Switzerland), and Bonn, he earned his Habilitation with Sebastian Merkle in Würzburg (1923), and was professor in Braunsberg (1929) and in Münster (1933). In his “history of ideas” turn to the objective, to authority, and community, Lortz saw intersections between National Socialism (I) and Catholicism. Lortz was removed from his chair in 1945 mainly because of his writing Katholischer Zugang zum Nationalsozialismus (A Catholic ap…

Geiselmann, Josef Rupert

(213 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Feb 27, 1890, Neu-Ulm – Mar 5, 1970, Tübingen) was ordained in 1915, received his doctorate in 1922 and completed his habilitation in 1925. From 1930 to 1949, he was the first ¶ professor of scholastic philosophy and apologetics at the faculty of Catholic theology in Tübingen, then from 1949 to 1958 professor of dogmatic theology. Following the suggestion of K. Adam, he worked on the medieval doctrine of the Eucharist. His true field of activity, however, became the so-called Catholic School of Tübingen (Johann …

Sailer, Johann Michael

(563 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Nov 17, 1751, Aresing, near Schrobenhausen – May 20, 1832, Regensburg), ¶ Catholic theologian and bishop. He began his studies at Ingolstadt in 1770 (as a Jesuit novice until the Jesuits were suppressed in 1773) and was ordained to the priesthood in 1775. He began his academic career in Ingolstadt, where he was appointed second professor of dogmatics in 1780 (alongside his teacher M. Sattler), but he was dismissed the next year along with the other ex-Jesuits as an “obscurantist.” In 1794 he…

Pius VI, Pope

(384 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Giovanni Angelo Braschi; born Dec 25, 1717, Cesena; pope Feb 15, 1775 – Aug 29, 1700). The lengthy pontificate of Pius VI marked the nadir of papal power and authority in modern times. After studying law, he entered curial service in 1740 and was ordained in 1758. In 1766 he was appointed treasurer of the Camera Apostolica; he was made a cardinal in 1773. After the death of Clement XIV, at the end of a four-month conclave he was elected pope as the candidate of the zelanti. He was consecrated bishop and crowned pope on Feb 21/22, 1775. A promoter of nepotism and a…

Binterim, Anton Josef

(182 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Sep 19, 1779, Düsseldorf – May 17, 1855, Bilk), Catholic theologian, became a Franciscan in 1796, was ordained as a priest in 1802, and became a pastor in Bilk in 1803. Ultramontanist opponent of the Enlightenment (Ultramontanism). In 1821 Binterim had an important role in the indexing of the Bible translation of L. van Eβ , in 1825 in the removal of the exegete Peter Alois Gratz from the Bonn Catholic Faculty and in 1835 in the posthumous conviction of G. …


(936 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert | Arnold, Claus
[German Version] I. Syllabus Errorum (1864) The Syllabus errorum is a list of modern errors, published on Dec 8, 1864, as an appendix to the encyclical Quanta cura of Pius IX. It consists of 80 statements taken from earlier addresses and writings of the pope. In general terms, the background of the condemnation was the Curia’s intensified campaign against liberalism since 1849, especially its struggle against the liberal Catholicism (III) of figures like C.F. de Montalembert (speech at the 1863 Catholic Congress in Mechel…


(787 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert | Arnold, Claus
[English Version] I. Der Syllabus von 1864 Der »Syllabus errorum« ist eine von Pius IX. am 8.12.1864 veröff. und der Enzyklika »Quanta cura« angefügte Liste moderner Zeitirrtümer in 80 Sätzen, die früheren Reden und Schriften des Papstes entnommen sind. Hintergrund der Verurteilung ist im allg. die verschärfte antiliberale Frontstellung der Kurie seit 1849, im bes. der Kampf gegen den liberalen Katholizismus (: III.) eines Ch.F. de  Montalembert (Mechelner Reden 1863) und die Bestimmung einer relativ …


(1,498 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Weitlauff, Manfred | Wolf, Hubert
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Als Primat (P.) bez. man die rechtliche Vorrangstellung des Papstes (Papat) als Bischof von Rom in der Gesamtkirche, d.h. seine höchste und unmittelbare Leitungsgewalt in der Gesamtkirche als Haupt des Bischofskollegiums, Hirte der Gesamtkirche und Stellvertreter Christi auf Erden (c.331 CIC/1983: »Der Bischof der Kirche von Rom … ist Haupt des Bischofskollegiums, Stellvertreter Christi und Hirte der Gesamtkirche hier auf Erden; deshalb verfügt er kraft seines Amtes …

Primacy, Papal

(1,811 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Weitlauff, Manfred | Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] I. Definition The expression papal primacy denotes the juridical supremacy in the universal church of the pope as bishop of Rome, i.e. his supreme and immediate administrative authority as head of the College of Bishops, pastor of the universal church, and vicar of Christ on earth ( CIC/1983, c. 331: “The Bishop of the Church of Rome . . . is the head of the College of Bishops, the Vicar of Christ, and the Pastor of the universal Church here on earth; consequently, by virtue of his office, he has supreme, full, immediate, and…
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