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Mousike

(241 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] (μουσική/ mousikḗ sc. τέχνη/ téchnē) encompassed the skills and arts imparted by the Muses that were cultivated ‘for their own sake’. The origin of the word is unclear (perhaps since Lasus [1] of Hermione), first found in Pindar (Ol. 1,15) and Epicharmus (CGF 91). In classical texts, it primarily refers to poetry, music and dance, then to training in the fine arts (Pl. Resp. 401d), musical harmonics (Archyt. 47B 1 DK), as well as philosophising (Plat. Phd. 61a). There were contests in the fine arts in Sparta, Delphi, Argos beginning in ancient times; contests in mousike are …

Hyagnis

(56 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] Mythical musician from Celaenae in Phrygia, ‘inventor’ of the aulos, said to have introduced the Phrygian mode ( harmonía) as well as nómoi of Cybele and of Pan (Aristox. fr. 78; Marmor Parium 10); named together with  Marsyas and  Olympus (Pseudo-Plut. Mus. 1132f; Anon. Bellermanni 28).  Musical instruments II (aulos) Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)

Lamprus

(75 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] (Λάμπρος; Lámpros). Musician, praised by Aristoxenus [1] as a master on a par with Pindar, Dionysius [39] of Thebes and Pratinas (Aristox. fr. 76 Wehrli). Also considered a music teacher, similar to Antiphon as teacher of rhetoric (Pl. Menex. 236a). The assumption that he may have been Sophocles' dance and music teacher (Ath. 1,20e) is difficult to reconcile chronologically with the testimony of the comedian Phrynichus (Ath. 2,44d). Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)

Eratocles

(37 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἐρατοκλῆς; Eratoklês). Head of a school of harmonics opposed on three occasions by Aristoxenus (5f. Meibom). Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) Bibliography A. D. Barker, Hoi kaloumenoi harmonikoi: the predecessors of Aristoxenus, in: PCPhS 24, 1978, 1-21.

Crexus

(59 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] (Κρέξος). Named together with Timotheus and Philoxenus as a poet of dithyrambs (Ps.-Plut. De musica 1135c). He allegedly introduced to dithyrambic poetry the style of Archilochus and the tragedians of partially speaking and singing iambic meters to the accompaniment of the lyre (λέγεσθαι/ᾄδεσθαι παρὰ τὴν κροῦσιν) (1141b; also Philod. De musica 4,5). Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)

Antigenidas

(56 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀντιγενείδας; Antigenéidas). Famous aulos player from Thebes, worked under Philoxenus with (Suda) and 382 BC at the marriage of Iphicrates (Athens 4, 131 b). The mouthpiece of his aulos was said to be novel (Theophr. Hist. pl. 4,11,3) and his playing to be stylistically formative (Ps.- Plut. Mus. 1138). Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)

Aristoclides

(32 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριστοκλείδης; Aristokléidēs). Kithara player of the School of Terpander, won over Phrynis, who began as an aulos player, to kithara playing (schol. Aristoph. Nub. 971). Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)

Rhythm

(992 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] I. Terminology In Greek Antiquity, ῥυθμική, sc. τέχνη ( rhythmikḗ, sc. téchnē) was, from Aristoxenus [1] on, the theory of rhythm. The original meaning of ῥυθμός ( rhythmós), long controversial, seems to have been ‘flowing’, ‘a stream’ [12]. Rhythmós referred to bodily and tonal movements, but also to immobile bodies and statues (Arist. Quint. 31 Meibom). R hythmós is attested in Archil. 67a 7 Diehl, in the context of μουσική ( mousikḗ ; Pl. Leg. 665a: κινήσεως τάξις/ kinḗseōs táxis, ‘order in movement’), in rhetoric (Aristot. Rh. 3,8,1408b-1409a), and as a …

Kordax

(90 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] (κόρδαξ; kórdax). Typical comedy dance (κωμικὴ ὄρχησις; kōmikḕ orchēsis; the word kordax appears first in Aristoph. Nub. 540). Usually connected with drunkenness, the kordax was a boisterous, burlesque, and rude dance. It was never described in detail, thus it cannot be identified clearly on vase paintings. The kordax also occurred outside of the theatre as a hyporchematic dance (Ath. 14,630e) or as a solo dance with instrumental accompaniment during banquets (Lucian Icaromenippus 27). Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) Bibliography K. Latte, De saltationibus Graeco…

Affects, Theory of (Musical)

(685 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[English version] Although affects were themes in Classical philosophy and rhetoric, incidentally also in the ethical doctrine of music ( Music), there was no specific theory of musical affects. That melodies and rhythms affected different souls in different manners had been demonstrated by Boethius inst. mus. 1,1) as a transmitter of the idea (Pythagoras, Plato rep. 3,398-401). After the 11th cent., the attempt was made to link the Musical theory of keys in Gregorian chant with the ethical doctr…

Chorus

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] A. Concept Χορός ( Chorós), ‘Ring dance, troupe of dancers, dance floor, chorus of singers’ (‘original meaning not ascertainable with any certainty’ Frisk). Ring or group dance associated with singing; in the narrower sense the chorus trained for the performance of choral lyrics and songs in Attic drama. Surviving evidence (texts of choral lyrics, pictorial representations, descriptions) provides scarcely more than sketchy impressions of the lively whole. The loss of song meant that…

Aristoxenus

(833 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀριστόξενος; Aristóxenos). [German version] [1] Musician, Musical theoretician, philosopher, biographer, from Tarentum from Tarentum, musician, musical theorist, philosopher, biographer, known as μουσικός. According to Suda son of Mnesias or of the musician Spintharus, pupil of his father, of a certain Lamprus of Erythrae, of the Pythagorean Xenophilus and finally of Aristotle. In Mantinea A. turned to philosophy. Claims to have heard in Corinth the story of Damon and Phintias from the tyrant Dionysius II …

Augustinus, Aurelius (Augustine)

(3,640 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] A. Life In addition to self-testimonials cf. especially the biography by  Possidius. On 13.11.354 birth of A. in Thagaste (northern Africa), the son of a simple non-Christian Roman civil servant, Patricius, and a Christian, Monnica. In 370 commenced rhetoric training in Carthage. 372: reading of Cicero's Hortensius. From 373-382 follower of Manichaeism, in 374 return to Thagaste; teacher of grammar and rhetoric. 376: teaching in Carthage. 380/1: (lost) first work De pulchro et de apto. 383: teaching in Rome; interest in the New  Academy. From 383 onwar…

Alypius

(331 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
(Ἀλύπιος; Alýpios). [German version] [1] Vicarius of Britain under Iulianus Possibly from Cilicia, absolved a study programme in Antiochia (Lib. Ep. 324). Under emperor  Julian he administered Britain as vicarius (Lib. loc.cit; n. 23,1,2). AD 363 Julian passed on the rebuilding of the temple of Jerusalem to the educated pagan (cf. Julian Ep. 29 and 30), this failed in the end (Philostorgius Hist. eccl. 7,9; Rufin. hist. 10,38; note 23,1,2). 371 A. was embroiled in a lawsuit concerning murder by poison and was exiled (n. 29,1,44). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Faltoniu…

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus

(2,318 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] A. Life Son of the consul for 487, B. was born around 480. After his father's early death he was adopted into the household of  Symmachus, whose daughter, Rusticiana, he married. Given an excellent education, he was as familiar with the writings of Plato, Aristotle and the Neoplatonists, especially Porphyry and the Athenian School, as with Augustine, and he soon acquired a reputation as a scholar. In 510 he became consul sine collega, and in 522 his two sons, not fully grown-up, obtained the consulate. Probably in the same year he became magister officiorum, but evidentl…

Calcidius

(247 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] (not Chalcidius). Christian philosopher; his dates are disputed: he either lived from the second half of the 3rd to the first half of the 4th cent. AD [1] or from the first half to the middle of 4th cent. [2]. Assigning his commentary on Plato's Timaeus to a particular school of thought (for Middle Platonism see [1] or Neoplatonism, see [2; 3; 4; 5]), is further complicated by the fact that important tenets, like those on providence and fatum, have basically remained unchanged from Middle Platonism to the end of Neoplatonism [6]. C.'s Timaeus commentary is also the first …

Cassiodorus

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] A. Life Flavius Magnus Aurelius C., a senator, born c. AD 490, came from a family of the senatorial aristocracy -- probably of Syrian origin (the name refers to the Syrian Zeus Kasios), but for generations settled in Scylacium (Squillace in Calabria) -- which was very influential in Bruttium and Sicily ( primatus: Cassiod. Var. 1,4,14) and carried out important political tasks (PLRE 2, 263f., C. 1 and 2). As a comes sacr. larg. of Odoacer, C.'s father (PLRE 2, 264f.) went over to Theoderic at the right time (AD 490), handed Sicily over to him without …

Glauce

(354 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Γλαύκη; Glaúkē). [German version] [1] Nereide Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,39; Hes. Theog. 244; Hyg. Praef. 8), whose name describes the glossy blue as well as comparable colour shades of the sea (Hom. Il. 16,34; Hes. Theog. 440) and whose masculine counterpart is  Glaucus. G. is also represented as a nymph at various locations (Paus. 8,47,2f.; Tzetz. Theogony 100-102). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Spring nymph, bride of Jason Spring nymph in Corinth, equated by some authors with the daughter of the local king  Creon, who otherwise is called  Creus…

Epigonus

(319 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἐπίγονος; Epígonos). [German version] [1] Sculptor in Pergamum Sculptor in Pergamum, who participated in building the victory monuments for the Attalids according to Pliny. Signatures are preserved on the following bases for Attalus I (241-197 BC): the so-called ‘Small Battle Bathron’ of the strategos Epigenes [2]; round base of the so-called ‘Great Anathema’ ( c. 228 BC; the attribution of the ‘Ludovisi Gaul’ remains in dispute); the so-called ‘Great Bathron’ ( c. 223 BC) with the ‘Dying Trumpeter’, which is documented in writing and was recognized in a copy on t…

Archestratus

(351 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
(Ἀρχέστρατος; Archéstratos). [German version] [1] Actor and Tragedian With his tragedy Antaios, an unknown actor triumphed at the Soteria in Delphi between 267 and 219 BC (DID B 11, 5). He is probably not to be identified with the A. mentioned in Plut. Aristides 1,3 (318e). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography Mette, 198 TrGF 75. [German version] [2] Author of a gastronomic poem from Gela, 4th cent. BC Citizen of Gela who lived in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC. 62 fragments (more than 300 verses) of his gastronomic poem, written c. AD 330, have been preserved by Athenaeus. Its …

Music

(8,304 words)

Author(s): Volk, Konrad (Tübingen) | Hickmann, Ellen (Hannover) | Seidel, Hans (Markkleeberg) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Music played a significant role in all areas of life of the Ancient Near East, but textual and iconographical evidence is mainly limited to its role in court life and the cultic-religious sphere. The making of music (Sumerian ‘nam-nar’, Akkadian ‘nārūtu’), already a highly specialized area as early as the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC, belonged to the fundamental values of civilization. The particular occasion determined the musical form (more than 100 Sumeri…

Ismenias

(791 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἰσμηνίας; Ismēnías or Ἱσμηνίας; Ismēnías). [German version] [1] Prominent Theban politician, 5th/4th cent. BC Prominent Theban politician, famous for his wealth (Pl. Men. 90a). After the end of the Peloponnese War (431-404 BC), I., with  Androclidas, came to the fore as leaders of a Hetaeria which opposed the pro-Spartan politics of  Leontiades. The goals were to push back the Leontiades faction and to bring about a new orientation in international politics towards Athens (Hell. Oxy. 12,1f.; 13,1; Xen. Hell.…

Didymus

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δίδυμος; Dídymos). [1] of Alexandria Important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC [German version] A. Philological activity The most important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC. The biographical entry in the Suda (δ 872) tells us that he was still alive in the reign of Augustus, and mentions a nickname ‘Chalkenteros’ (Χαλκέντερος, ‘Brazen-guts’, cf. the Suda ι 399, χ 29). To his strong constitution he attributed an untiring assiduity that extended to different branches of p…

Musical instruments

(5,186 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Volk, Konrad (Tübingen) | Hickmann, Ellen (Hannover) | Seidel, Hans (Markkleeberg) | Zanoncelli, Luisa (Milan)
[German version] I. Preliminary remarks Musical instruments that have been preserved or graphically represented in a clear manner can easily be identified as such. Assigning them to their ancient names, however, and, conversely, assigning ancient names to particular instruments, is often either uncertain or impossible. Furthermore, one and the same musical instrument may have been called by different names. For these reasons, a systematic survey is in order. Since the Hellenistic period, three categories have been recognized: strings (ἐντατά/ entatá, ἔγχορδα/ énchorda, tensib…

Eratosthenes

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἐρατοσθένης; Eratosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, active in the Peloponnesian War An Athenian of rich family. In 411 BC he was serving as a trierarch in the Hellespont, but left his ship in order to support the oligarchs in Athens (Lys. 12,42). After the capitulation of Athens in the Peloponnesian War (404 BC), E. belonged to an action group ─ the five ephors ─ working for an oligarchic coup. After the abolition of the democratic order, E. was on the ruling committee of the Thirty, and after its …

Music

(14,471 words)

Author(s): Haas, Max (Basle) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Bernhard, Michael | Sachs, Klaus-Jürgen | Steinhauser, Ulrike | Et al.
Haas, Max (Basle) I. History of Ideas (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In an ancient tradition continuing to the 17th/18th cent., music was conceived as a twofold possibility of dealing with 'experience' and 'structure' [21]. In the first case, it was considered as the medium that enables abstraction from individual sensual perception. The opposite process was also possible: music provides insight into intelligible factors that do not necessarily lead to sense perception. In the following, therefor…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Euclides

(2,633 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Et al.
(Εὐκλείδης; Eukleídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian archon in 403/2 BC Athenian archon in 403/2 BC. During his year in office Athens made a new start following the Oligarchy of the Thirty (e.g., see And. 1,87-94) and, among others, officially adopted the Ionian alphabet (Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 155). Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) Bibliography Develin 199 LGPN 2, Εὐκλείδης (9). [German version] [2] of Megara Student of Socrates Student of Socrates, founder of the  Megarian School; born between 450 and 435, probably died early in the 360s. In Plato's Phaedon (59c) E. is named among those …

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His rivalry with  Themistocles, documented already in Herodotus (8,79), …

Metre

(8,752 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Leonhardt, Jürgen (Marburg/Lahn) | Hecker, Karl (Münster) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
[German version] I. Preliminary remark Originally sung poetry, often accompanied by dance, metric literature was obviously subject to other formative conditions than poetry intended from the outset for spoken presentation or for reading. Texts of such kinds still show traces of their earlier sound form ( Music). Accordingly the form ranged from simple ‘melodic lines of sound’, as can be presumed for the ancient Orient and Israel ( parallelismus membrorum, strophic poetry, sometimes with rhythmic accent order, congruence of form and language s…

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…

Isidorus

(2,455 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰσίδωρος; Isídōros). [German version] [1] Pirate captain, defeated by Lucullus at Tenedus in 72 BC Pirate captain who organized the Cilician pirates in the area around Crete, was besieged in 78 BC by P. Servilius Isauricus (Flor. 1,41,3), later entered the service of Mithridates and in 72 was defeated by Lucullus in the naval battle of Tenedos at the entrance to the Dardanelles (App. Mithr. 77, Memnon 42,2 = FHG 3,548) and killed (Plut. Lucullus 12.2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] I. of Charax Geographer, end of 1st cent. BC Geographer, certainly of the Augustan p…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…
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