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Aegissus

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Αἰγισσος; Aígissos). Thracian fortress (1st cent. BC, Ov. Pont. 1,8,13), modern Tulĉa (Romania) in the Danube delta. Necropolis from the 6th to 1st cents. BC. Under  Rhoemetalces at the time of Augustus controlled by Rome (Cass. Dio 54,20,1-3). In about 12 BC destroyed by northern tribes, but rebuilt; from the 2nd cent. BC onwards, growing in military and civilian importance.   Statio between Noviodunum and Salsovia (It. Ant. 226,2). Fortified under Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,7,20). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Simion, Les Gètes de …

Saumacus

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Killer of Paerisades [6] V, who surrendered the Regnum Bosporanum to Mithridates [6] VI. According to the decree honouring Diophantus [2] (IOSPE 12 no. 352, 34-35), S. had begun a rebellion with the Scythae, which gripped the European part of the empire. He was captured by Diophantus and handed over to Mithridates. This rebellion was evidently directed against the new political leadership. The view that S. was a slave is based on a wrong translation. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Gavrilov, Skify Savmaka - vosstanie ili vtorženie?, i…

Tanais

(391 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τάναϊς/ Tánaïs). [German version] [1] River A 1970 km long river forming the border between the Scythae and the Sarmatae (Hdt. 4,21; according to Plin. HN 6,20 called Silis by the Scythae) and flowing into the Maeotis, modern Don. Sarmatian tribes lived around its lower reaches from the 4th cent. BC onwards; some 15 ancient settlements are known from archaeology there. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius | Rome City founded in the 3rd …

Iyrcae

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰύρκαι/ Iýrkai, Hdt. 4,22; Tyrcae, Plin. HN 6,19; Mela, 1,116). Tribe of hunters east of Thyssagetae, east of Tanais, probably in the Ural region, in the plains of Kama, Vjatka, Belaja and Volga. The precise localization and ethnic identification are debatable and cannot be determined on the basis of the sources. Russian research links the I. with the Ananino culture (8th-3rd cents. BC), of which burial mounds and fortified settlements are known and whose trading reached as far as the Caucasus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography J. Harmatta, Quel…

Myrcinus

(163 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Μύρκινος; Mýrkinos). Edonian settlement (Edones), later Greek polis, east of the lower Strymon; both its ancient and its modern name is M. (Str. 7a,1,33). In 513 BC, Darius [1] gave M. to Histiaeus [1] who expanded and fortified the town. After the collapse of the Ionian Revolt,   Aristagoras [3] led more colonists to M.; after his death (497 BC), the Edonians regained M.  (Hdt. 5,11; 124ff.; Thuc. 4,102,2). In 423 BC, after …

Zygactes

(23 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ζυγάκτης; Zygáktēs). Coastal river to the east of Philippi (App. B Civ. 4,105; 4,128); not identified. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Eupator

(81 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Ti. Julius E., king of the  Regnum Bosporanum, from AD 154/5 to c. 174, follower of  Rhoemetalces. Coins to 170. Roman vassal, financially supported by the Romans (Lucian, Alex. 57). As the first king of the Bosporus he had a Sarmatic sign as his emblem. Most of the inscriptions come from  Panticapaeum where his residence was located (IOSPE 2, 422, 438 et al.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 348 n. 42; 351.

Crobyzi

(165 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κρόβυζοι). Large Getic subtribe ( Getae) living between the Athrys (modern Jantra), the lower Oescus (modern Iskar) and the  Pontus Euxinus (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 170; Arr. Anab. 1,1; 1,3; Ptol. 3,10,4). In their land (Κροβυζική) the rivers Athrys, Noes and Artanes (modern Vit?, Hdt. 4,49) flowed. After the collapse of the kingdom of the  Odrysae, it seems to have expanded to the south to the northern slope of the  Haemus (Str. 7,5,12). Phylarchus (FGrH 81 F 20) reports of Isanthes, a …

Sveshtari

(250 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] To the north of S. (district of Razgrad Oblast in Bulgaria) a Thracian burial complex (first half of the 3rd cent. BC) was discovered in 1982. In the southeastern part of the Ginina Mogila burial mound is the grave of a Getic king ( dromos with relief frieze of bucrania, rosettes and garlands, three square chambers, i.e. ante-, burial and side chambers); 12 caryatids on the burial chamber, which can be linked to Thracian afterlife beliefs. In the chamber there are two stone catafalques, and above the larger one also wall pa…

Macrocephali

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μακροκέφαλοι; Makroképhaloi, ‘the large-headed’). Apparently a tribe west of Colchis (Hes. fr. 153). But the name probably comes from the mythical or fictitious reports on the peoples on the Pontos Euxeinos (cf. Str. 7,3,6 as an example of his mythical criticism), even though geographers continued to use it (Mela 1,19; Plin. HN 6,2). According to Scyl. 37 they are identical with the Macrones. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Odrysae

(476 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὀδρῦσαι; Odrỹsai). Thracian tribe in the eastern part of the Rhodope Mountains and on the lower reaches of the Tonzus (modern Tundža) as far as Cabyle (Hdt. 4,92). At the beginning of the 5th cent. BC, a kingdom was founded by Teres with the O.'s help. (Thuc. 2,29,2f.). He expanded their settlement area in the north to the Ister [2], in the south to the river Agrianes (also called Erginus). His successors were his sons Spartacus (until about 440: Thuc. 2,101,5) and Sitalces, who e…

Coelaletae

(105 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κοιλαλῆται; Koilalêtai, Lat. Coelaletae). Ethnonym referring to two different Thracian tribes: the ‘Greater Coelaletae’ below the  Haemus (Plin. HN 4,41) and the ‘Lesser Coelaletae’ below the  Rhodope; in AD 21 they fought together with the Odrysae and Dii against the Romans (Tac. Ann. 3,38f.). The Thracian strategia Koiletike was situated there (Ptol. 3,11,9). C. are found several times as soldiers on inscriptions of the 1st cent. AD (cf. CIL XVI 33 of AD 86). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan ..…

Gylon

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γύλων; Gýlōn). Athenian, is said at the end of the 5th cent. BC to have been responsible for the northern Pontic  Nymphaeum that belonged to Athens being ‘Handed to the enemies’, for which he was given the death penalty (Aeschin. In Ctes. 171); probably his offence was less serious (Dem. Or. 28,3). G. was allocated by the Bosporanian rulers the town of Kepoi with its territory, from which he collected high taxes. He married a rich Scythian and returned to Athens with her. One of his daughters was the mother of  Demosthenes [2] (Traill, PAA 282005). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigh…

Apsinthii

(81 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀψίνθιοι; Apsínthioi). Thracian tribe on the Thracian  Chersonesus, east of the Dolonci. It was against them that  Miltiades had a wall built from Cardia to Pactye (Hdt. 6,36 f.). After the conquest of Sestus by the Athenians in 478 BC, the A. took the Persian Oiobazos prisoner and sacrificed him to their god Pleistorus (Hdt. 9,119). The A. took their name from the River Apsinthus (=  Melas). The  Hieron oros was in Apsinthis.  Sestus von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Ismaris

(36 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰσμαρίς; Ismáris). Lake near the Aegean coast between Maronea and the River Strymon (Hdt. 7,109) with a sanctuary of Maron (Str. 7, fr. 44), probably near modern Paguria. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Rhecusporis

(313 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
Kings of the Regnum Bosporanum with the name Tiberius Julius R. (for name variations see Rhascypolis). [German version] [1] R. (II.) King of the Regnum Bosporanum from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 Son of Cotys [II 1] I., ruled from AD 68/9 to AD 91/2 (IOSPE 2,52; 355; 358); he minted gold stateres and pursued a policy which was more independent of Rome PIR2 I 512; [1. 14-17, 93-103]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] R. (III.) King of Bosporus and the surrounding peoples AD 210/1- AD 226/7 Son of Ti. Julius Sauromates II., ruled as 'king of Bosporus and the surroun…

Callip(p)idae

(90 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καλλιπ(π)ίδαι; Kallip(p)ídai). Name of the inhabitants of the region neighbouring the emporium of Borysthenes on the modern Dnieper, characterized as Hellenoskýthai (Ἑλληνοσκύθαι, Hdt. 4,17; cf. Str. 12,3,21; Mela 2,7). They seem to be identical with the Graeco-Scythian population, referred to as Mixhéllēnes (Μιξέλληνες) in decree IOSPE 12 32, Z. 26f. The name alludes both to the Scythians as an equestrian people and to the derisive nickname of C. (‘unlucky fellow’). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography I. von Bredow, Der Begriff der Mixh…

Pautalia

(241 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Moesi, Moesia (Παυταλία; Pautalía). City in a fertile plain on the upper Strymon (Ptol. 3,11,12) between the River Bantčica and Hizarlak Hill, overbuilt by modern Kjustendil (in Bulgaria). Founded under Trajan (98-117 AD) over a settlement of the Thracian Danthaletae (traces from the early Hallstatt period onward, end of the 8th century BC), P. was an administrative, economic and cultural centre. Mining (iron, copper, lead, and sil…

Cynossema

(67 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κυνὸς σῆμὰ; Kynòs sêma, ‘dog grave’). Cape on Thracian Chersonesus south of Madytus near modern Kilit Bahır where the Hellespont is at its very narrowest, well known for the sea victory of the Attic fleet over the Peloponnesians in 411 BC (Thuc. 8,104-107; Diod. Sic. 13,40,6; cf. also regarding the name ‘dog grave’ Eur. Hec. 1270ff.; Ov. Met. 13,569). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Machares

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαχάρης; Machárēs). Son of Mithridates VI; M. went over to the Roman side as early as 70 BC as amicus et socius (Plut. Lucullus 24). He sent Lucullus ( Licinius [I 26]) auxiliary troops and food at the siege of Sinope. In 65 he attempted to flee Mithridates from Panticapaeum to the Chersonesus [3], burnt the ships behind him in the harbour and committed suicide in view of the hopelessness of his situation (Memnon, FGrH 434 F 37f.; App. Mith. 102) or was murdered (Cass. Dio 36,50). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Rei…

Pelagones, Pelagonia

(257 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πελαγόνες/ Pelagónes, Πελαγονία/ Pelagonía). Inhabitants and region in northern Macedonia, the plateau between the south of modern Macedonia and northwestern Greece, surrounded by hilly country and mountain chains with an extent of c. 100 km north-south and c. 20 km east-west. Originally P. was taken to relate only to the region around modern Prilep on the middle reaches of the Erigon (Str. 7,7,8f. [1. 283]; Str. 7a,1,20; 38f.; 9,5,11.). There were only four simple ways of reaching P. Among those living in P. beside…

Sarmatae

(900 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σαρμάται/ Sarmátai, Σαυρομάται/ Sauromátai; Lat. Sarmatae). Iranian nomadic tribes who include, among others, the Alani, Aorsi, Iazyges, Rhoxolani and Sirachi. They lived until the mid 3rd cent. BC east of the Tanais (modern Don), regarded as the border between Scythae (with map) and S. (Hdt. 4,21), in the steppes north of the Caucasus (τὰ τῶν Σαρματῶν πεδία/ tà tôn Sarmatôn pedía, Str. 11,2,15). The Syrmatae probably lived in the outermost western region (Steph. Byz., s.v. Συρμάται; in Ps.-Scyl. 68 already west of the Tanais). From the m…

Naparis

(21 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νάπαρις; Náparis). Left-bank tributary of the Danube in Scythia (Hdt. 4,48); not identifiable. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Peuce

(214 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Πεύκη; Peúkē). [German version] [1] Largest island in the delta of the Istrus [2] The largest island in the delta of the Istrus [2] (Danube) in Getae territory (Apoll. Rhod. 4,309-322; Str. 7,3,15; Amm. 22,8,43; according to Ps.-Scymn. in 785-789 P. was no smaller than Rhodes, but this must be a misunderstanding), probably modern Sfântu Gheorghe (to the north of P. [2]). In 335 BC Alexander [4] the Great tried in vain to defeat the Thraci and Triballi, who had fled on to P. (Str. 7,3,8; Arr. Anab. 1,2f.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] Southern branch at the…

Serrheium

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σέρρειον ἄκρα/ Sérrheion ákra, Σέρρειον τεῖχος/ Sérrheion teîchos, Σέρριον/Sérrhion; Latin Serrheum). Cape (Str. 7a,1,48; App. B Civ. 4,101 f.) and castle on the north coast of the Aegean, in the west of the Plain of Doriscus (Hdt. 7,59) in the area settled by the Thracian Satrae, modern Makri west of modern Alexandroupolis. While occupied by the Delian League, the castle was captured in 346 BC by Philippus [4] II (Aeschin. Or. 3,82; Dem. Or. 6,64; 7,37; 9,15; 10,8; 65; 18,27; 70). In 200 …

Bizone

(146 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βιζώνη; Bizṓnē). Ancient settlement on the terraces leading to the plateau of the Dobruža, Čirakman on the western Black Sea coast. Traces of settlement from the Aeneolithic; originally a Thracian settlement, but hardly an apoikia of Mesambria/Mesembria (Ps.-Scymn. 758f.). Probably a polis as early as the 4th cent. BC; epigraphical evidence for the chora from the early 2nd cent. BC (Inscriptiones Scythiae Minoris 1,15,26f.). B. was captured by Lucullus in 72/71 BC (Eutr. 6,10); soon after, it was destroyed by an earthquake (Plin. H…

Borysthenes

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βορυσθένης; Borysthénēs). After the Ister, the largest river in the northern area of the Black Sea (Hdt. 4,53), the modern Dnieper. Debouches into the west of the Black Sea, into the same lagoon as does the Hypanis. The B. was navigable for 600 stades upstream (Str. 7,3,17). The Skythai georgoi settled on its fertile lower reaches. Antiquity had no clear idea as to its course in the hinterland (Hdt. 4,18; Str. 7,2,4; Procop. Goth. 4,5). It had the name Danapris or Danaper from the 4th cent. AD; the Huns called it by the Iranian…

Orbelus

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὄρβηλος/ Órbēlos). Mountain range in the border area between Thrace and Macedonia (Hdt. 5,16; Str. 7a,1,36; Arr. Anab. 1,1,5), generally equated with the modern Belasica in the northern part of Halkidiki. It was known for its Dionysus cult (Mela 2,17). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoričeskata geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 24f., 118.

Delcus

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δέλκος; Délkos, Byzantine Δέρκος; Dérkos). Lake to the north of  Byzantium, today Derkoz Gölü/Turkey. According to Ath. 3,118b, the delkanós (δελκανός) was caught there, a fish that originated in the Délkōn (Δέλκων), which flowed into the D. In the Roman period an oppidum of the same name. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Ininthimaeus

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰνινθίμαιος; Ininthímaios). Bosporan king, c. AD 234-239 of the dynasty of the Tiberii Iulii. Like his emblem, his name is also Sarmatian. Attested on coins and in inscriptions (including IOSPE 2, 334, 433). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukević, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 458 A. N. Zograph, Ancient Coinage, 1977, II, 333.

Sindice

(151 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σινδική/ Sindikḗ). Probably originally the combined territory of the peninsula and island group of Taman to the north of the Hypanis [1]/Bug (Ps.-Scyl. 72), named after the Sindi; later it was probably only the southern part of the peninsula that bore this name (Str. 11,2,10). S. was also settled by other tribes, e.g. by the Aspurgiani (Str. 11,2,11; 12,3,29). S. was an agriculturally significant region with a dense network of settlements. In the 6th cent. BC Greek colonies (Hermo…

Satrae

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάτραι; Sátrai). Thracian tribe on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegaean) between Nestus and Strymon on the northeastern slopes of the Pangaeum, whose ore deposits they exploited (Hdt. 7,112; possibly also meant by  Σατροκένται/ Satrokéntai in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 181). The Edones are recorded as being there from 475 BC onwards (Hdt. 9,75). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography 1 J. N. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i vladeteli (Monetni sakrovista ot balgarskite zemi), 1992, 16 2 I. von Bredow, Stammesnamen und Stammeswir…

Hylaea

(98 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὑλαία; Hylaía). Forested area, east of the Borysthenes (Hdt. 4,17; 19; Ps.-Scymn. 844f.) between the Kinburn peninsula and Skadovska in the steppes of the lower Dniester, belonging to  Olbia. In the archaic and classical eras, it was significant for  Scythians and Greek colonists. The Scythian name for H. was Abika (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὑ.). H. played a large role in Scythian mythology (cf. Hdt. 4,9; 76). A large production and trade centre with docks, probably from the 6th/5th cents. BC, has been discovered (Jagorlyckoe poselenie). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissi…

Galepsos

(189 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γάληψος; Gálēpsos). [German version] [1] Settlement east of the estuary of the Strymon into the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars Settlement east of the point where the Strymon flows into the Aegean, probably east of Orfani, at the mouth of a water-course between the Pangaeum and the Symvolon. G. was part of the settlement of the Peraea of Thasos. Archaeologically attested from the 7th cent. BC and attested in literature since Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 152). Scyl. 67 et al. call G. a pólis. Together with the small neighb…

Dionysopolis

(278 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia (Διονυσόπολις; Dionysópolis). Settlement on the western coast of the Black Sea, today Balčik/ Bulgaria. There is evidence of settlement dating from Neolithic times. Nothing is known about the founding of the ancient city. On the basis of Ionic elements in inscriptions and the six indirectly identified Miletian phyles (IGBulg 1,15 ter), it is assumed that D. was probably founded by the Miletians in the 7th cent. BC. According to Ps.-Scymn. 75ff., D. was previously known as Krounoí; but accordi…

Iazyges, Iazuges

(208 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰάζυγες; Iázyges). Iranian-Sarmatian tribe, first documented around the birth of Christ. They probably settled from the 3rd cent. BC at the earliest on the  Maeotis east of the Tanais in the area of the Roxolani (Ptol. 3,7; Amm. Marc. 22,8,31). In the 1st cent. BC a branch of the I. turned towards the southwest, crossed the Carpathians and settled on the plains between the lower Danube and the Tibiscus (later the province of Pannonia; cf. Ov. Pont. 4,7,9; Tr. 2,191; Ἰάζυγες μετανάσται/ lázyges metanástai with a list of the Iazygian cities, Ptol. 7,1f.; Str. 7…

Doriskos

(100 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaimenidai | Perserkriege (Δορίσκος, Doriscum). Ortschaft im Westen der Hebros-Mündung (h. Evros) in der gleichnamigen Ebene (Hdt. 7,59). 512 v.Chr. von Dareios I. als Ausgangspunkt seines Feldzugs gegen die Griechen und als Proviantspeicher angelegt und so auch von Xerxes genutzt (Hdt. 7,25, 108; Heeresschau des Xerxes: 7,59f.; Plin. nat. 4,43). Befehlshaber der pers. Garnison war Maskames (7,105f.). 346 v.Chr. von Philippos II. eingenomme…

Nipsaioi

(100 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Νιψαῖοι). Thrak. Stamm westl. von Mesambria wohl an den Osthängen des Strandža-Gebirges bis etwa Salmydessos. Beim Durchzug des Perserheeres unter Dareios [1] nach Norden gegen die Skythai 513 v.Chr. unterwarfen sich die N. kampflos (Hdt. 4,93). Evtl. identisch mit den Tranipsoi (Xen. an. 7,2,32; Hesych. s.v. Τρανιψοί). E. des 5. Jh.v.Chr. fielen sie unter die Herrschaft der Odrysai, weswegen sie in späteren Quellen nicht mehr genannt werden. Der ON Νίψα/ Nípsa bei Steph. Byz. ist eine spätere Konstruktion. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliograph…

Pantikapes

(83 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Παντικάπης). Iranischer Name des Bosporos [2] (Ps.-Skymn. 850; Eust. ad Dion. Per. 311; Steph. Byz. s.v. Παντικάπαιον), der Pantikapaion den Namen gab; er bedeutet wohl “Fischstraße”. Mit dem Fluß P. bei Hdt. 4,18 ist die Meerenge selbst gemeint; hier spiegelt sich die Vorstellung wider, daß der Tanais südl. der Maiotis in den Pontos Euxeinos mündet (Arr. per. p. E. 29). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Diehl, s.v. P., PE, 825f.  V.I. Abaev, Osetinskij jazyk i folklor, 1949, 170, 175.

Maidoi

(244 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Μαῖδοι, Μαίδοι, M(a)edi). Thrak. Stammesverband am mittleren Lauf des Strymon, zw. Kresna und Rupel (h. Makedonien). Nach dem frühesten Beleg (Thuk. 2,98) Nachbarn der Sintoi und Paiones. 429 v.Chr. zog Sitalkes durch ihr Gebiet, das nicht zum Reich der Odrysai gehörte, gegen die Makedones. Nach dem Rückzug des Sitalkes erweiterten die M. ihr Stammesgebiet nach Norden, unterwarfen wahrscheinlich die Dentheletai und gründeten die befestigte Stadt Iamphorynna (im h. Kreis Kjustendil…

Alanoi

(445 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Ἀλανοί). Iran. Stammesverband nördl. der Kaspia Thalatta, vom Kaukasos bis zum Tanais. A. erscheinen seit dem Ende der röm. Republik in den Quellen an Stelle der sarmatischen Stämme. Pompeius stieß beim Feldzug gegen Mithradates VI. auf A. (Lucan. 8,133). Seit Ende des 1. Jhs. n. Chr. Einfälle in Media und Armenia; unter Hadrianus (117-138 n. Chr.) bedrohten sie Kappadokia. Zu ihrer Kultur Lukian. toxotai 51; Amm. 30,2,3; Iord. Get. 24. Ende des 3. Jhs. n. Chr. im Zuge der erste…

Kabyle

(244 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Moesi, Moesia | Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci | Straßen (Καβύλη, Cabyle). Stadt beim h. Kabile im Bogen des Flusses Tonzos, Bezirk Jambol/Bulgarien. Siedlungsspuren sind seit der Spätbrz. und der frühen Eisenzeit nachgewiesen. Etwa Mitte 5. Jh.v.Chr. entwickelte K. intensive Beziehungen zum ägäischen Raum. Auf der Akropolis entstand ein Felsheiligtum mit Kybele-Relief. 342/1 v.Chr. wurde K. von Philippos II. erobert (Demosth. or. 8,44; 10,14) und zu ein…

Peuke

(177 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Πεύκη). [English version] [1] größte Insel im Delta des Istros [2] Die größte Insel im Delta des Istros [2] (Donau) im Gebiet der Getai (Apoll. Rhod. 4,309-322; Strab. 7,3,15; Amm. 22,8,43; nach Ps.-Skymn. 785-789 war P. nicht kleiner als Rhodos, was ein Mißverständnis sein muß), h. wohl Sfîntu Gheorghe (nördl. von P. [2]). Alexandros [4] d.Gr. versuchte 335 v.Chr. vergeblich, die auf P. geflüchteten Thrakes und Triballoi zu schlagen (Strab. 7,3,8; Arr. an. 1,2f.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [English version] [2] Südl. Mündungsarm des Istros [2] Südl. Mündungsarm de…

Karpaten

(167 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Καρπάτης ὄρος/Κάρπαθον ὄρος, lat. Carpates montes, Carpatae, Alpes Bastarnicae). Bogenförmige, wald- und wasserreiche Gebirgskette zw. dem Balkangebirge (Haimos) und den Alpen, natürliche Grenze zw. Balkan und nordosteurop. Steppengebiet. Erst Marinos (Ptol. 3,5,6; 15; 18; 20; 7,1; 8,1) erkannte die K. als selbständiges Gebirge, während sie früher meist als Teil der Alpen oder des Haimos galten. In den West-K. gab es Gold-, Silber- und Salzvorkommen. Mit K. bezeichnet Ptol. (l.c.) nur d…

Naparis

(19 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Νάπαρις). Linker Nebenfluß der Donau in Skythia (Hdt. 4,48), nicht identifizierbar. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Melanditai

(60 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Μελανδῖται). Griech. Bezeichnung eines thrak. Volksstammes nördl. von Perinthos (Xen. an. 7,2,32; vgl. den Gebietsnamen bei Steph. Byz. s.v. Μελανδία). Nördl. von ihnen lag das Stammesgebiet der Thynoi, im Osten das “Thrakische Delta” von Byzantion. Ihr Gebiet gehörte zur hell. Strategie Astike. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoriceska geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 40f., 111f.

Pliska

(201 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (slav.; griech. Πλίσκοβα/ Plískoba). Residenzstadt des ersten Reiches der Bulgaroi, einem der Nachfolgestaaten auf dem Boden des Röm. Reiches, in den J. 681-843, 25 km östl. von Šumen beim h. Pliska (ehemals Aboba) in NO-Bulgaria, nördl. des Haimos, wo sich wichtige Gebirgspässe kontrollieren ließen, wohl von Khan Asparuh gegr. Urspr. als Militärlager 23 km2 groß, mit viereckigen und runden Holzbauten, drei konzentrischen Wällen - errichtet; der innerste Ring umschloß den Palastbezirk (0,5 km2). Diese unter dem Khan Krum gestaltete Stadt wurde 811…

Kimmerioi

(798 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Κιμμέριοι, lat. Cimmerii). Nomadenvolk wohl iran. Herkunft, für das 8./7. Jh.v.Chr. bezeugt. Assyr. und babylon. Formen des Namens: Ga-mir, Gi-mir-a-a u.ä.; im AT als gmr, in der Masora Gȯmär. Nach einem Dokument aus der Zeit Sargons II. [1. Nr. 30-32] zog der urartäische König Rusa I. ins Land Gami(ra) (zw. 720 und 714 v.Chr.) und wurde dort geschlagen. Aus derselben Zeit bezeugt ein weiteres Dokument einen Einmarsch der K. in Urartu aus dem Gebiet südl. des Sees Urmia [2. Nr. 2,1]. Der Ausgangspunkt der Aggression der K…

Dionysopolis

(214 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Moesi, Moesia | Thrakes, Thrake, Thraci (Διονυσόπολις). Ortschaft an der westl. Schwarzmeerküste, h. Balčik/Bulgarien. Siedlungsspuren sind seit dem Neolithikum nachgewiesen. Von der Gründung der ant. Stadt ist nichts bekannt. Aufgrund ion. Elemente in Inschr. und der sechs indirekt belegten milesischen Phylen (IGBulg 1,15 ter) ist D. wohl eine milesische Gründung des 7. Jh.v.Chr. Nach Ps.-Skymn. 75ff. hieß D. vormals Krounoí; nach Mela 2,22 war Krounoí dagegen der Hafen von D. Erste Blüte läßt sich i…

Makrokephaloi

(65 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[English version] (Μακροκέφαλοι, “die Großköpfigen”). Angeblich ein Stamm westl. der Kolchis (Hes. fr. 153). Der Name stammt aber wohl aus mythischen bzw. fiktiven Berichten über die Völker am Pontos Euxeinos (vgl. Strab. 7,3,6 als Beispiel seiner Mythenkritik), auch wenn er weiterhin von Geographen gebraucht wurde (Mela 1,19; Plin. nat. 6,2). Nach Skyl. 37 sind sie mit den Makrones identisch. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
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