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Lysimachia

(508 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Λυσιμάχεια; Lysimácheia). [German version] [1] City on the Thracian Chersonesus This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni | Natural catastrophes City founded by one of the Diadochi Lysimachus, in 309 BC - in place of the city of Cardia destroyed by him - as the capital city of Thracian Chersonesus and the seat of government (Str. 7, fr. 51; Liv. 23,38,11; Ptol. 3,11) there on the southern coast of Melas Kolpos near modern Bakla Burnu. In the Hellenistic period L. was the most important trans-sh…

Sarmatae

(900 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σαρμάται/ Sarmátai, Σαυρομάται/ Sauromátai; Lat. Sarmatae). Iranian nomadic tribes who include, among others, the Alani, Aorsi, Iazyges, Rhoxolani and Sirachi. They lived until the mid 3rd cent. BC east of the Tanais (modern Don), regarded as the border between Scythae (with map) and S. (Hdt. 4,21), in the steppes north of the Caucasus (τὰ τῶν Σαρματῶν πεδία/ tà tôn Sarmatôn pedía, Str. 11,2,15). The Syrmatae probably lived in the outermost western region (Steph. Byz., s.v. Συρμάται; in Ps.-Scyl. 68 already west of the Tanais). From the m…

Naparis

(21 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νάπαρις; Náparis). Left-bank tributary of the Danube in Scythia (Hdt. 4,48); not identifiable. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Peuce

(214 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Πεύκη; Peúkē). [German version] [1] Largest island in the delta of the Istrus [2] The largest island in the delta of the Istrus [2] (Danube) in Getae territory (Apoll. Rhod. 4,309-322; Str. 7,3,15; Amm. 22,8,43; according to Ps.-Scymn. in 785-789 P. was no smaller than Rhodes, but this must be a misunderstanding), probably modern Sfântu Gheorghe (to the north of P. [2]). In 335 BC Alexander [4] the Great tried in vain to defeat the Thraci and Triballi, who had fled on to P. (Str. 7,3,8; Arr. Anab. 1,2f.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] Southern branch at the…

Serrheium

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σέρρειον ἄκρα/ Sérrheion ákra, Σέρρειον τεῖχος/ Sérrheion teîchos, Σέρριον/Sérrhion; Latin Serrheum). Cape (Str. 7a,1,48; App. B Civ. 4,101 f.) and castle on the north coast of the Aegean, in the west of the Plain of Doriscus (Hdt. 7,59) in the area settled by the Thracian Satrae, modern Makri west of modern Alexandroupolis. While occupied by the Delian League, the castle was captured in 346 BC by Philippus [4] II (Aeschin. Or. 3,82; Dem. Or. 6,64; 7,37; 9,15; 10,8; 65; 18,27; 70). In 200 …

Bizone

(146 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βιζώνη; Bizṓnē). Ancient settlement on the terraces leading to the plateau of the Dobruža, Čirakman on the western Black Sea coast. Traces of settlement from the Aeneolithic; originally a Thracian settlement, but hardly an apoikia of Mesambria/Mesembria (Ps.-Scymn. 758f.). Probably a polis as early as the 4th cent. BC; epigraphical evidence for the chora from the early 2nd cent. BC (Inscriptiones Scythiae Minoris 1,15,26f.). B. was captured by Lucullus in 72/71 BC (Eutr. 6,10); soon after, it was destroyed by an earthquake (Plin. H…

Odessus

(653 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Moesi, Moesia (Ὀδησσός; Odēssós). [German version] I. Development up to the 3rd century AD Greek city on the western coast of the Pontos Euxeinos (Ptol. 3,10,8; 8,11,6), modern Varna (in Bulgaria); Milesian foundation (beginning of the 6th cent. BC; Ps.-Scymn. 748-750; Plin. HN 4,45; Colonization, with map and overview). Member of the Delian League (ATL 1, 116, 157, fr. 38 for 425 BC). After an u…

Gelonus

(147 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γελωνός; Gelōnós). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and the snake maiden Echidna Son of Hercules and the snake maiden  Echidna, brother of Agathyrsus and of  Scythes, eponym of the Graeco-Scythian Geloni (Hdt. 4,10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] City of the Butini City of the Budini, mentioned only by Hdt. 4,108, according to the context of the highly contested passage, north of the Melanchlaeni on the upper Donec. Herodotus describes a city built of wood with Greek architecture and a Greek life-style. The inhabit…

Borysthenes

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βορυσθένης; Borysthénēs). After the Ister, the largest river in the northern area of the Black Sea (Hdt. 4,53), the modern Dnieper. Debouches into the west of the Black Sea, into the same lagoon as does the Hypanis. The B. was navigable for 600 stades upstream (Str. 7,3,17). The Skythai georgoi settled on its fertile lower reaches. Antiquity had no clear idea as to its course in the hinterland (Hdt. 4,18; Str. 7,2,4; Procop. Goth. 4,5). It had the name Danapris or Danaper from the 4th cent. AD; the Huns called it by the Iranian…

Orbelus

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὄρβηλος/ Órbēlos). Mountain range in the border area between Thrace and Macedonia (Hdt. 5,16; Str. 7a,1,36; Arr. Anab. 1,1,5), generally equated with the modern Belasica in the northern part of Halkidiki. It was known for its Dionysus cult (Mela 2,17). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoričeskata geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 24f., 118.

Delcus

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δέλκος; Délkos, Byzantine Δέρκος; Dérkos). Lake to the north of  Byzantium, today Derkoz Gölü/Turkey. According to Ath. 3,118b, the delkanós (δελκανός) was caught there, a fish that originated in the Délkōn (Δέλκων), which flowed into the D. In the Roman period an oppidum of the same name. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Ininthimaeus

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰνινθίμαιος; Ininthímaios). Bosporan king, c. AD 234-239 of the dynasty of the Tiberii Iulii. Like his emblem, his name is also Sarmatian. Attested on coins and in inscriptions (including IOSPE 2, 334, 433). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukević, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 458 A. N. Zograph, Ancient Coinage, 1977, II, 333.

Sindice

(151 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σινδική/ Sindikḗ). Probably originally the combined territory of the peninsula and island group of Taman to the north of the Hypanis [1]/Bug (Ps.-Scyl. 72), named after the Sindi; later it was probably only the southern part of the peninsula that bore this name (Str. 11,2,10). S. was also settled by other tribes, e.g. by the Aspurgiani (Str. 11,2,11; 12,3,29). S. was an agriculturally significant region with a dense network of settlements. In the 6th cent. BC Greek colonies (Hermo…

Satrae

(89 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάτραι; Sátrai). Thracian tribe on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegaean) between Nestus and Strymon on the northeastern slopes of the Pangaeum, whose ore deposits they exploited (Hdt. 7,112; possibly also meant by  Σατροκένται/ Satrokéntai in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 181). The Edones are recorded as being there from 475 BC onwards (Hdt. 9,75). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography 1 J. N. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i vladeteli (Monetni sakrovista ot balgarskite zemi), 1992, 16 2 I. von Bredow, Stammesnamen und Stammeswir…

Hylaea

(98 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὑλαία; Hylaía). Forested area, east of the Borysthenes (Hdt. 4,17; 19; Ps.-Scymn. 844f.) between the Kinburn peninsula and Skadovska in the steppes of the lower Dniester, belonging to  Olbia. In the archaic and classical eras, it was significant for  Scythians and Greek colonists. The Scythian name for H. was Abika (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὑ.). H. played a large role in Scythian mythology (cf. Hdt. 4,9; 76). A large production and trade centre with docks, probably from the 6th/5th cents. BC, has been discovered (Jagorlyckoe poselenie). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissi…

Galepsos

(189 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γάληψος; Gálēpsos). [German version] [1] Settlement east of the estuary of the Strymon into the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars Settlement east of the point where the Strymon flows into the Aegean, probably east of Orfani, at the mouth of a water-course between the Pangaeum and the Symvolon. G. was part of the settlement of the Peraea of Thasos. Archaeologically attested from the 7th cent. BC and attested in literature since Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 152). Scyl. 67 et al. call G. a pólis. Together with the small neighb…

Gorgippus

(122 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Γόργιππος; Górgippos). [German version] [1] Eponym of  Gorgippia, regent of the Sindian region after his father  Satyrus I 's war against the Maeotae (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,55). High government official at the time of his uncle  Paerisades. A statue was erected for him in Athens (Din. in Demosthenem 43).  Maiotae,  Sindi von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 72; 43; 232. [German version] [2] Author of satyr plays Son of Pythippos, author of satyr plays. His victory at the Soteria in Acraephia in the 1st…

Dionysopolis

(278 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Moesi, Moesia (Διονυσόπολις; Dionysópolis). Settlement on the western coast of the Black Sea, today Balčik/ Bulgaria. There is evidence of settlement dating from Neolithic times. Nothing is known about the founding of the ancient city. On the basis of Ionic elements in inscriptions and the six indirectly identified Miletian phyles (IGBulg 1,15 ter), it is assumed that D. was probably founded by the Miletians in the 7th cent. BC. According to Ps.-Scymn. 75ff., D. was previously known as Krounoí; but accordi…

Mares

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Banholzer, Iris (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Tribe, Mares [1] (Μᾶρες; Mâres). One of the five tribes which formed the 19th tax district under Darius [1], probably west of Colchis. Mentioned only by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 205) and Hdt. 3,94,2; 7,79 where they are described together with the Moschi, Tibareni, Macrones and Mossynoeci as lightly armed soldiers with small leather shields and javelins. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] Progenitor of the Ausones, Mares [2] (Μάρης; Márēs). Progenitor of the Ausones. Because his Centaur-like figure appears too fabulous, he is …

Iazyges, Iazuges

(208 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἰάζυγες; Iázyges). Iranian-Sarmatian tribe, first documented around the birth of Christ. They probably settled from the 3rd cent. BC at the earliest on the  Maeotis east of the Tanais in the area of the Roxolani (Ptol. 3,7; Amm. Marc. 22,8,31). In the 1st cent. BC a branch of the I. turned towards the southwest, crossed the Carpathians and settled on the plains between the lower Danube and the Tibiscus (later the province of Pannonia; cf. Ov. Pont. 4,7,9; Tr. 2,191; Ἰάζυγες μετανάσται/ lázyges metanástai with a list of the Iazygian cities, Ptol. 7,1f.; Str. 7…

Thraci, Thracia

(5,334 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Boroffka, Nikolaus | Z.H.A.
(Θρᾷκες/ Thrâikes, Θρῇκες/ Thrêikes; Θρᾴκη/ Thrâikē, Θρῄκη/ Thrêikē): the 'Thracians' and the country 'Thrace' settled by them; Lat. Thraci, Thracia. [German version] I. Name Thraci (Th.) is a Greek collective term, based on linguistic and cultural homogeneity, for the population of the northern Balkan Peninsula from the north coast of the Aegean (Aegean Sea, also called the 'Thracian Sea': Str. 1,2,20) to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]; ancient authors often include the territory as far as the northern Carpathians), an…

Doriscus

(133 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars (Δορίσκος; Dorískos, Doriscum). Settlement in the west of the Hebrus estuary (modern Evros) in the plain of the same name (Hdt. 7,59). In 512 BC it was laid out by Darius I as the starting point of his campaign against the Greeks and as a provisions storehouse, and it was also used in this way by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,25, 108; inspection of troops by Xerxes: 7,59f.; Plin. HN 4,43). The commander of the Persian garrison was Maskame…

Theodosia

(169 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Θεοδοσία/ Theodosía; modern Feodosiya). City on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I) in a fertile plain, with an excellent harbour which could contain 100 ships (Str. 7,4,4), founded c. 700 BC by colonists from Miletos [2]. T. minted coins autonomously c. 500 BC. Conquered in the first half of the 4th cent. BC by Leucon [3] I, T. was subsequently the westernmost polis of the Regnum Bosporanum (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 30). The city was an import…

Bizye

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | (Βιζύη; Bizýē). Town on the south-western slopes of the Strandăza mountains, modern Vize/Turkey; residence of the Odrysian-Sapaean kings probably from the 3rd cent. BC, possibly since the destruction of  Seuthopolis (Str. 7 fr. 48). At the time of Trajan founded as a peregrine town of the strategia of Astike. The territory of B. encompassed i.a. the mines around Mălko Tarnovo, and bordered on that of  Deultum. Finding place of autonomous and imperial coins; B. is often mentioned …

Deultum

(300 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia (Δεβελτός; Debeltós). Settlement c. 25 km west of  Burgas, modern Debelt/Bulgaria. Traces from the late Bronze Age, and afterwards Thracian Hallstatt settlement that later flourished because of its trade with the Greek colonies of the Black Sea. D. was connected with the sea via Lake Mandra which in antiquity stretched further south than it does today. Attic goods of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC, Hellenistic c…

Dantheletae

(289 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δανθηλῆται/ Danthēlêtai; also Dentheleti). Thracian tribe inhabiting the area around the upper reaches of the  Strymon and the area to the west reaching as far as Axius. Earliest mention was by Theopompus (FGrH 115 F 221) for 340/339 BC. Philip V twice laid waste to their territory on his Thracian campaigns (184 and 181 BC: Liv. 39,53,12; 40,22,9; Pol. 23,8,4). In 88 BC, the D. acted as allies of Rome in the quelling of a Macedonian revolt. They attacked this province in 86/5 together with the Maedi, Dardani and Scordisci. In 57 and 56, the proconsul of Macedonia, L. Cal…

Salmydessus

(201 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαλμυδησσός/ Salmydēssós). [German version] [1] Coastal region Coastal strip of the Pontos Euxeinos [I] without harbours, dangerously shallow for navigation, 700 stadia in length (Ps.-Scymn. 724-727; Ptol. 3,11,4: Σ. ἤτοι Ἁλμυδησσὸς αἰγιαλός ( Salmydēssòs ḗtoi Halmydēssòs aigialós) 'shore of S. or Halmydessus') from the Bosporus [1] to Cape Thynias, where the Astae (Ἀσταί/ Astaí) settled near other Thraci (Str. 7,6,1; cf. 1,3,4; 7). In 513 BC, the Thraci on the S. surrendered without a fight to Darius [1] I on his campaign against the Scythae (Hd…

Tyle

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τύλη; Týlē). [German version] [1] City in Thrace Capital of the Celtic kingdom in Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), founded under Comontorius in 278 BC, abandoned in 212 BC after the Thracians' victory over the Celtic king Cavarus (Pol. 4,46). On the basis of Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύλις, T. is generally localized near Haemus, in the region around modern Tulovo (district of Kazanlăk in Bulgaria). A textual variant in Steph. Byz. loc.cit., however, suggests a location in the Late Antiquity province of Haemimontus in southeastern Thrace, where the fortress Τουλεοῦς/ Touleoûs (Procop. Aed. 4,11,20…

Tempyra

(96 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τέμπυρα; Témpyra). Settlement on the Thracian coast of the Aegaean (Aigaion Pelagos) to the east of Sale; founded by Samothrace. T. was a station on the Via Egnatia (Str. 7a,1,48;  It. Ant. 322,3: Timpiro;  It. Burd. 602,8: mutatio Ad Umimpara), the precise site is unknown (Str. 7, fr. 47 f.). Near T. there was a narrow unforested pass, at which pro-consul Manlius [I 24] Vulso, on his return march from Asia Minor in 188 BC, had to fight the Trausi (Liv. 38,41,5). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 489  Müller, 74.

Elaeus

(251 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἐλαιοῦς; Elaioûs). [German version] [1] City on the south of the Thracian Chersonesus This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Athenian League (Second) City in the south of the Thracian Chersonesus near modern Eceabat (Turkey), foundation of the Athenians in the 6th cent. BC to control the southern access to the Propontis, important port town. Used by Militiades the Younger as the base for expeditions against Lemnos and Lesbos (Hdt. 6,140). E. was used as an achorage by Xerxes (Hdt. 7,22). The sanctua…

Abdera

(343 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] City on Cape Bouloustra This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Punic Wars | Athenian League (Second) (Ἄβδηρα; Ábdēra). City on Cape Bouloustra, in the Aegean, 16 km north-east of the mouth of the Nestus; founded and fortified in 656 BC by Ionian  Clazomenae; destroyed by Thracians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC. Archaeologically attested archaic graves. From 545 BC, a second fou…

Cercinitis

(152 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Patricius (Κερκινῖτις; Kerkinîtis). Ionian foundation from the 6th cent. BC in the north-western part of the Crimea near the modern village of Evpatorija (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 70; Str. 12,3,18; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 19,5), from the middle of the 4th cent. BC in the possession of Chersonesus [3] [1. 352] and closely linked with it; second largest town with an important port, agriculture and crafts, also Doric inscriptions [1. 339]. Fr…

Siraci

(162 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σιρακοί/ Sirakoí, Latin Sirachi). Sarmatian tribe, which inhabited the steppe regions to the west of the Caspian Sea between the Maeotae and the Thatei (Mela 1,114). Under their king Ariphanes they supported Eumelus [4] against his brothers (Diod. 20,22: here  Θρᾷκες is better read as Σ.). From the 1st cent. AD onwards the S. expanded southwards, where they are recorded on the Hypanis [1] (Ptol. 5,9,17: Σερακά). Their cavalry supported Pharnaces [2] II (Str. 11,5,8) and, under their…

Getae

(1,011 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γέται; Gétai). Greek term for the Thracian tribes south of the Lower Danube in modern Dobrudža and in the hinterland of the north-western Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast. Their region shows traces of settlement from the Stone Age onwards and was the centre of highly developed cultures from the time of the Copper Stone Age (cf. Varna, Durankulag). On the basis of the written sources and the language remnants attested in the Onomastikon, the G. are shown to be the northern Thr…

Aigos Potamos (Potamoi)

(78 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War (Αἰγὸς ποταμός; Aigòs potamós). Settlement on the Thracian  Chersonesus opposite Lampsacus. Width of the straits at that point c. 15 stades (Xen. Hell. 2,1,21). Location of Athens' defeat by  Lysander in 405 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,105). Also the point where the stream of the same name in the tribal territory of the  Dolonci flows into the sea. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Mithridates

(3,920 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(also Mithradates; Μιθριδάτης/ Mithridátēs, Μιθραδάτης/ Mithradátēs ). The personal name Μιθραδάτης is Persian - coins [4. 10-17] attest to the original spelling. Inscriptions, (Syll.3 709 passim; 741,14,23; 742,4; 12) sporadically give Μιθριδάτης, even contemporary ones (Greek ILS 37,8, Latin ILS 38,28; 60,5; 9), which is the form found in most later documents (Syll.3 785,10) and manuscripts. The change α/ι is due to weakening of vowels at the morpheme boundary, demonstrable from the 5th century onwar…

Coralli

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κόραλλοι; Kóralloi). Tribe in the region of the  Getae, documented in literature only for the last cent. of the Roman Republic and the 1st cent. of the Imperial period (Ov. Pont. 4,2,37; 8,83; Str. 7,5,12). Appianus (Mith. 293) mentions the C. separately from the Iazyges and Thracians, but more likely meant the Sarmatae or Scythae instead. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. K., RE XI 2, 1377.

Dioscurias

(196 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius (Διοσκουρίας; Dioskourías). Greek pólis and port (Ps.-Scyl. 81) on the eastern shore of the Black Sea, mod. Suḫumi/Abhazia, according to Eratosthenes (Str. 1,3,2; 2,5,25) the easternmost coastal town of the Pontus Euxinus. No exact dates of foundation; the pottery suggests that it was founded by Milesians in the 6th cent. BC (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 10,4; Anon. Per. p. E. 7B). Important commercial centre …

Kamasarye Philoteknos

(107 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καμασαρύη Φιλότεκνος; Kamasarýē Philóteknos). Daughter of the Bosporan king Spartocus V and wife of his successor, Paerisades III, very active politically and mentioned in many inscriptions along with him (e.g. sacrificial list from Didyma, CIG 2, 2855, 178/7 BC; Syll.3 439 from Delphi among others). IOSPE I2 19 ( Panticapaeum) mentions K. as ruler of the Regnum Bosporanum and her son (?) Paerisades IV. She married Argotas before 160 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. N. Grakov, Materialy no istorii Skifii v grečeskih nadpisjah Ba…

Niconia

(87 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νικωνία, Νικώνιον/ Nikōnía, Nikṓníon). A town in the north of the Black Sea area, northeast of the Tyras (Dniester) estuary, opposite Ophiusa (Str. 7,3,16; Νικώνιον/ Nikṓníon: Peripl. m. eux. 61 GGM 1 p. 418; Ps.-Scyl. 68; Ptol. 3,10,16) and near the present-day village of Roxolany. Steph. Byz. s.v. Νικωνία mistakenly located the town on the Danube. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M.V. Agbunov, Davn'ogrečeskii Nikonij, in: Arheologija 32, 1979, 17-25  G.A. Koselenko, Antičnye gosudarstva Severnogo Pričernomor'ja, 1984, 29f.  M.L. Ber…

Tilataei

(62 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Praetor in 59 BC, thereafter probably governor of Africa (Cic. Flacc. 85). His relationship to the quaestor of Verres (T. V.; cf. V. [I 2]) and the tresvir monetalis (Tresviri [4]) T. V. Sabinus, whose dates are disputed (BMCRR, no. 3370; RRC, no. 404; MRR 2,455; 3,219), is unclear. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoričeska geografija na thrakijskite plemena, 1983, 19, 58.

Paerisades

(622 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Παιρισάδης/ Pairisádēs, Παρισάδης/ Parisádēs, Βηρισάδης/ Bērisádēs). Royal name of Iranian origin among the Bosporanean Spartocids (Spartocus) and the Thracian Odrysae. [German version] [1] P. I. Ruler of the Regnum Bosporanum Ruler of the  Regnum Bosporanum, son of Leucon [3] I., 'árchōn of the Sindi, of all Maeotae, Thataeans and Dosci' [1. no. 8], husband of Kamasarye. P. ruled from  349/8-344 BC together with his brothers Spartocu II. and Apollonius, dividing the territory of the kingdom between themselves. In 347/6, a trade agreement with Athens was renewed by them (Syll.3 …

Zygi

(77 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ζύγιοι/ Zýgioi). People on the eastern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) who lived between the Achaei [2] and the Heniochi (Str. 2,5,31; 11,2,1; 11,2,13 f.: Ζυγοί/ Zygoí; Dionys. Per. 687 with Eust. ad locum; Avien. Descriptio orbis terrae 871) and financed their way of life, tolerated by the Regnum Bosporanum, by means of piracy on the coasts of the Pontos Euxeinos (Str. 11,2,12). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1976, 311, 343.

Cicones

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κίκονες; Kíkones). Tribal group on the northern Aegean coast between Nestus and Hebrus, the later settlement area of the Bistones and Sapaei, in the Homeric epics named as allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,846f.; 17,72f.). Homer distinguishes between the coastal C. and those in the northern mountains. Ismarus is described as a wealthy city of the C., and herds of sheep and cattle along with viticulture are also mentioned (Hom. Od. 9,39-59). It is doubtful whether the C. belonged t…

Prytanis

(191 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Πρύτανις; Prýtanis). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sparta Mythical king of Sparta, allegedly son of Eurypon (Hdt. 8,131), who was considered to be progenitor of the Eurypontid dynasty. The genealogy is fictitious, however, like the one of the Agiads before the 6th cent. BC. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC King of the Regnum Bosporanum in 310-309 BC, the youngest son of Paerisades [1] I. After the death of his brother Satyrus [2] I, he fought against his eldest brother Eumelus [4] (D…

Sauromates

(249 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαυρομάτης; Sauromátēs). Name of Bosporan kings; see also Sarmatae. [German version] [1] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 100 AD King of the Regnum Bosporanum, AD 93/4-123/4, son of Rhescuporis II; S. conducted successful wars against the Scythae (IOSPE 22 26) and pirates in the area of the northern Pontos. Many new buildings in Gorgippia and Panticapaeum attest to the increase in prosperity under his rule. There was a column in honour of S. in Sinope (IOSPE 22 40). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] King of the Regnum Bosporanum, c. 200 AD King of the Regnum …

Thynia

(56 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Θυνία; Thynía). Island off the Bithynian southeastern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos;  Str. 12,3,7; Ptol. 5,1,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. Θυνιάς), modern island of Kefken, approximately 40 km to the west of the mouth of the Sangarius. There was a sanctuary to Apollo there (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,684). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Melinophagi

(55 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελινοφάγοι/ Melinophágoi; ‘Millet-eaters’). Greek name of a Thracian tribe located between Salmydessus and Byzantium. According to Xen. An. 7,2, the M. settled to the east of the Melanditae, Thyni and Tranipsii (cf. Theop. FGrH 115 F 223). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoriceska geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 41, 108 f.

Edones

(349 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἠδωνοί; Ēdōnoí, Ἠδῶνες; Ēdônes). Thracian tribe on the lower reaches of the Strymon and on the Pangaeum. Their region was rich in mines and forests and therefore much embattled. Records of the E. exist for the 6th to the 4th cent. BC. They were subjugated in Megabazus' first European campaign. The Milesian tyrant Histiaeus received the settlement of Myrcinus from Darius and had a city built in its place (Hdt. 5,11; 23; 124). His son-in-law Aristagoras [1] fell in the fight against t…

Bisanthe

(127 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Βισάνθη; Bisánthē). Town on the Propontis, later Resisthon (both names in Plin. HN 4,43; 48; cf. It. Ant. 176,1), modern Rodosto; possibly a foundation from Samos (Mela 2,24). Hdt. 7,137 mentions B. for 484 BC, when it was part of Sitalces' kingdom. Later, it was possibly in the possession of Alcibiades (Nep. Alc. 7,4), then part of the kingdom of Seuthes II, who offered B., together with Ganus and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (Xen. An. 7,2,38). Fortified by Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,9; 17: Rhaidestos); destroyed by K…
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