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Theodosia

(169 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Θεοδοσία/ Theodosía; modern Feodosiya). City on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I) in a fertile plain, with an excellent harbour which could contain 100 ships (Str. 7,4,4), founded c. 700 BC by colonists from Miletos [2]. T. minted coins autonomously c. 500 BC. Conquered in the first half of the 4th cent. BC by Leucon [3] I, T. was subsequently the westernmost polis of the Regnum Bosporanum (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 30). The city was an import…

Bizye

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | (Βιζύη; Bizýē). Town on the south-western slopes of the Strandăza mountains, modern Vize/Turkey; residence of the Odrysian-Sapaean kings probably from the 3rd cent. BC, possibly since the destruction of  Seuthopolis (Str. 7 fr. 48). At the time of Trajan founded as a peregrine town of the strategia of Astike. The territory of B. encompassed i.a. the mines around Mălko Tarnovo, and bordered on that of  Deultum. Finding place of autonomous and imperial coins; B. is often mentioned …

Deultum

(300 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia (Δεβελτός; Debeltós). Settlement c. 25 km west of  Burgas, modern Debelt/Bulgaria. Traces from the late Bronze Age, and afterwards Thracian Hallstatt settlement that later flourished because of its trade with the Greek colonies of the Black Sea. D. was connected with the sea via Lake Mandra which in antiquity stretched further south than it does today. Attic goods of the 1st half of the 4th cent. BC, Hellenistic c…

Dantheletae

(289 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δανθηλῆται/ Danthēlêtai; also Dentheleti). Thracian tribe inhabiting the area around the upper reaches of the  Strymon and the area to the west reaching as far as Axius. Earliest mention was by Theopompus (FGrH 115 F 221) for 340/339 BC. Philip V twice laid waste to their territory on his Thracian campaigns (184 and 181 BC: Liv. 39,53,12; 40,22,9; Pol. 23,8,4). In 88 BC, the D. acted as allies of Rome in the quelling of a Macedonian revolt. They attacked this province in 86/5 together with the Maedi, Dardani and Scordisci. In 57 and 56, the proconsul of Macedonia, L. Cal…

Salmydessus

(201 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σαλμυδησσός/ Salmydēssós). [German version] [1] Coastal region Coastal strip of the Pontos Euxeinos [I] without harbours, dangerously shallow for navigation, 700 stadia in length (Ps.-Scymn. 724-727; Ptol. 3,11,4: Σ. ἤτοι Ἁλμυδησσὸς αἰγιαλός ( Salmydēssòs ḗtoi Halmydēssòs aigialós) 'shore of S. or Halmydessus') from the Bosporus [1] to Cape Thynias, where the Astae (Ἀσταί/ Astaí) settled near other Thraci (Str. 7,6,1; cf. 1,3,4; 7). In 513 BC, the Thraci on the S. surrendered without a fight to Darius [1] I on his campaign against the Scythae (Hd…

Tyle

(116 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Τύλη; Týlē). [German version] [1] City in Thrace Capital of the Celtic kingdom in Thrace (Thraci, Thracia), founded under Comontorius in 278 BC, abandoned in 212 BC after the Thracians' victory over the Celtic king Cavarus (Pol. 4,46). On the basis of Steph. Byz. s.v. Τύλις, T. is generally localized near Haemus, in the region around modern Tulovo (district of Kazanlăk in Bulgaria). A textual variant in Steph. Byz. loc.cit., however, suggests a location in the Late Antiquity province of Haemimontus in southeastern Thrace, where the fortress Τουλεοῦς/ Touleoûs (Procop. Aed. 4,11,20…

Tempyra

(96 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τέμπυρα; Témpyra). Settlement on the Thracian coast of the Aegaean (Aigaion Pelagos) to the east of Sale; founded by Samothrace. T. was a station on the Via Egnatia (Str. 7a,1,48;  It. Ant. 322,3: Timpiro;  It. Burd. 602,8: mutatio Ad Umimpara), the precise site is unknown (Str. 7, fr. 47 f.). Near T. there was a narrow unforested pass, at which pro-consul Manlius [I 24] Vulso, on his return march from Asia Minor in 188 BC, had to fight the Trausi (Liv. 38,41,5). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography E. Oberhummer, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 489  Müller, 74.

Cercinitis

(152 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Patricius (Κερκινῖτις; Kerkinîtis). Ionian foundation from the 6th cent. BC in the north-western part of the Crimea near the modern village of Evpatorija (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 70; Str. 12,3,18; Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 19,5), from the middle of the 4th cent. BC in the possession of Chersonesus [3] [1. 352] and closely linked with it; second largest town with an important port, agriculture and crafts, also Doric inscriptions [1. 339]. Fr…

Siraci

(162 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σιρακοί/ Sirakoí, Latin Sirachi). Sarmatian tribe, which inhabited the steppe regions to the west of the Caspian Sea between the Maeotae and the Thatei (Mela 1,114). Under their king Ariphanes they supported Eumelus [4] against his brothers (Diod. 20,22: here  Θρᾷκες is better read as Σ.). From the 1st cent. AD onwards the S. expanded southwards, where they are recorded on the Hypanis [1] (Ptol. 5,9,17: Σερακά). Their cavalry supported Pharnaces [2] II (Str. 11,5,8) and, under their…

Getae

(1,011 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γέται; Gétai). Greek term for the Thracian tribes south of the Lower Danube in modern Dobrudža and in the hinterland of the north-western Greek colonies on the Black Sea coast. Their region shows traces of settlement from the Stone Age onwards and was the centre of highly developed cultures from the time of the Copper Stone Age (cf. Varna, Durankulag). On the basis of the written sources and the language remnants attested in the Onomastikon, the G. are shown to be the northern Thr…

Aigos Potamos (Potamoi)

(78 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War (Αἰγὸς ποταμός; Aigòs potamós). Settlement on the Thracian  Chersonesus opposite Lampsacus. Width of the straits at that point c. 15 stades (Xen. Hell. 2,1,21). Location of Athens' defeat by  Lysander in 405 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,105). Also the point where the stream of the same name in the tribal territory of the  Dolonci flows into the sea. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Tauri

(255 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ταῦροι/ Taûroi). Pre-Scythian people on the Chersonesus [2] (Crimea), probably descendants of the bearers of the Kizil-Koba culture, in the 7th/6th cent. BC driven by the Scythae and Greek colonists into the inland hills. They occupied themselves especially with agriculture and animal husbandry; there is evidence of trade with Greek poleis only from the 4th cent. BC onwards. A goddess worshipped among the T. was identified by the Greeks with Artemis or Iphigenia (Hdt. 4,103). In 513 BC the T. declined to help the Scythae against…

Palacium

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Παλάκιον; Palákion). Scythian fortress in the steppe region of the Crimea (Str. 7,4,7); together with the fortified settlements Chabon and Neapolis it was founded by Scilurus and his sons (Str. 7,4,3). The Scythians used P. as a base against Mithridates [5] V. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 309.

Hunni

(847 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Οὖννοι; Oûnnoi, Χοῦννοι; Choûnnoi), the Huns. [German version] A. History Nomadic people, origin debatable. In all probability they came from central Asia shortly after the time of Christ. As Χοῦννοι ( Choûnnoi) first mentioned in Ptol. 3,5,25 between  Bastarnae and Roxolani (additional later localizations in Amm. Marc. 2,1; Iord. Get. 36f.). Some of the Hunnic tribes moved to the Caucasus region; from the eastern Hunnic branch, several states emerged (Hephthalitae, Avares, Chazars and Protobulgarians). Around AD 376 Hunnic …

Hermonaktos kome

(73 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἑρμώνακτος κώμη; Hermṓnaktos kṓmē). Settlement at the mouth of the  Tyras (Str. 7,3,16) or at a distance of c. 16.5 km from it (Ptol. Geog. 3,10,7). Perhaps identical with the remains of an ancient settlement near modern Kosovka. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M. V. Arbunov, K voprosu o lokalizacii bašni Neoptolema u Germonaktovoj derevni [On the problem of locating the tower of Neoptolemos and H.K.], in: VDI 1, 1978, 43-51.

Maedi

(270 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαῖδοι, Μαίδοι; Maîdoi, Maídoi, M(a)edi). Thracian tribal league on the middle reaches of the Strymon, between Kresna and Rupel (modern Macedonia). According to the earliest witness (Thuc. 2,98), neighbours of the Sinti and Paeoni. In 429 BC, Sitalces moved through their territory, which did not belong to the kingdom of the Odrysae, against the Macedons. After the withdrawal of Sitalces, the M. expanded their tribal territory to the north, probably subjugated the Dentheleti and estab…

Tyras

(182 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Τύρας/ Týras). Colony of Miletus [2] on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), modern Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Dnister (Ps.-Skymn. 7,98; 7,802 f.; Plin. HN. 4,82). The Ionian character of the polis is confirmed by inscriptions (IOSPE I2 2-19), the calendar and the cult of Apollo Ietrus. The date of foundatio…

Agathopolis

(123 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγαθόπολις; Agathópolis). Modern Ahtopol on the western coast of the Black Sea. Inscriptions on coins allow a probable trace of the name to the 5th cent. BC; according to Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 36 Aulaiou teichos, Ptol. 3,11,3 Perontikon, Geographus Ravennas 4,6,2-5 Burtinum; from Middle Ages verified as A. Traces of settlements from the aeneolithic period onward; in the 3rd/2nd cents. BC Greek polis (IGBulg 474-478). It was integrated into the Roman province of  Thracia in the midd…

Cimmerii

(943 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κιμμέριοι; Kimmérioi, Lat. Cimmerii). Nomadic tribe probably of Iranian descent, attested for the 8th/7th cents. BC. The Assyrian and Babylonian forms of the name were Ga-mir, Gi-mir-a-a and similar; in the OT they were referred to as gmr, in the Masora Gȯmär. According to a document from the time of Sargon II [1. no. 30-32], the Urartian King Rusa I invaded the land of Gami(ra) (between 720 and 714 BC) and was defeated there. A further document from the same period attests to a Cimmerian intrusion into  Urartu from the region south of La…

Regnum Bosporanum

(1,439 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
The 'Bosporan kingdom' on the northern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), the heart of which was the Kerč peninsula on the so-called Cimmerian Bosporus [2], called Kimmerikòs Bósporos or simply Bósporos (Diod. Sic. 12,36; 20,22). Cf. the two maps below. [German version] I. The founding of the kingdom The Greek cities on the straits of Kerč joined together c. 480 BC under the leadership of Panticapaeum, probably originally as a protective alliance against the native Scythians. The first dynasty was the Archaeanactids, whose founder Archaeanax proba…

Mastusia

(30 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαστουσία/ Mastousía, Μαζουσία/ Mazousía). Unidentified location on the southern tip of the Thracian Chersonnesus [1] (Str. 7, fr. 52; Ptol. 3,2,9; 12,1; Mela 2,2,25). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Scombrus

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σκόμβρος; Skómbros). Heavily forested mountains with ore deposits in the west of Thrace (Thuc. 2,96,3; Scopius, Plin. HN 4,35), modern Vitoša south of Sofia. Aristot. Mete. 350b 16f. mistakenly locates the sources of the  Nestus [1] and the Hebrus there. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Pagrae

(82 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πάγραι; Págrai). Port settlement on the Caucasian coast of the Pontos Euxeinos, 180 stadia from Hieros Limen (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 28; Anon. Peripl. m. Eux. 10r 9; possibly identical with Toricus in Scyl. Peripl. m. Eux. 74), near modern Gelenǧik, 43 km to the southeast of modern Novorossiysk. Probably part of the Regnum Bosporanum. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 237f.  D.D. and G.T. Kacharava, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoy epochi, 1991, 207, 280f.

Treres

(126 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τρῆρες/ Trêres, Τρᾶρες/ Trâres). Thracian tribe, located in the Plain of Serdica (modern Sofia) to the north of the Scombros (modern Vitoša) Mountains and to the west of the River Oescus [1] (modern Iskăr). In the kingdom of the Odrysae they were among the northwestern border tribes. They were neighbours of the Triballi and the Tilataei (Thuc. 2,96,6; Str. 1,3,18; Plin. HN 4,35). According to Str. (1,3,21; 13,1,8; 14,1,40) they were supposed to have been among the Cimmerii who migrated to Asia Minor. Ancient oriental sources do not mention them, however. von Bredow, I…

Eunones

(57 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] King of the Aorsi, supported C.  Iulius Aquila and  Cotys I against  Mithridates IX. However after the capture of Uspe, he received the latter but handed him over later on the condition that his life would be spared (Tac. Ann. 12,15-20).  Aorsi von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 342f.

Athyras

(74 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀθύρας; Athýras). Small river, which flows into the Propontis west of Byzantium, today Kara-su (Plin. HN 4,47; according to Ptol. 3,11,4 several branches). In the late Roman era, the fortified harbour settlement (Amm. Marc. 22,8,8) was restored by Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,8,18). The fortified stone bridge, which was destroyed by Krum in 812, was famous. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. Zlatarski, Istorija na bălgarskata dăržava prez srednite vekove 1,1, 21994, 275.

Skardon oros

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σκάρδον ὄρος/ Skárdon óros; Latin mons Scordus). High mountains, placed by Str. 7a,1,10 in the chain of mountains bounding Macedonia in the north beyond Bertiscus (nowadays in Montenegro) and this side of Orbelus, Rhodope (modern Rhodope, Rila and Prin) and Haemus (modern Stara Planina). According to Liv. 44,31,4 f. (cf. 43,20,1; Pol. 28,8,3, in connexion with the third of the Macedonian Wars) SO is surrounded in the east by Dardania, in the south by Macedonia and in the west by Illyricum. Thus SO is generally identified with modern Šar Planina. von Bredow, Iris (Bie…

Odomanti

(111 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ὀδόμαντοι; Odómantoi). Thracian tribe on the east bank of the lower Strymon at the western foot of Pangaeum (Str. 7a,1,36) in the area of modern Serres (northern Greece). The O. were involved in exploiting the gold mines there (Hdt. 7,112; Thuc. 2,101,3). Megabazus [1], commander of the forces of Darius, failed to subject the O. in 512 BC (Hdt. 5,16). A king of the O., Polles, provided a mercenary force to the Spartans in 425 BC (Thuc. 5,6,2). They were conquered by the Macedonians after 424 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Altthrakien…

Arzus

(61 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἄρζος; Árzos). River in Thrace, modern Sazlijka; at its mouth into the  Hebrus (not the Propontis, cf., however, Ptol. 3,11,4), there was a statio of the same name (It. Ant. 136,7; Tab. Peut. 8,2), modern Kalugerovo, district of Haskovo, in the territory of Augusta Traiana (IGBulg 3,1704-1706). Fortified by  Justinianus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography IGBulg, 3,2, 131.

Pharsanzes

(71 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Pharzanes). King of the Regnum Bosporanum in AD 253-254; he interrupted the reign of Rhecusporis V probably as a usurper who was hostile to the Romans. He is known on account of the coins he issued PIR2 P 343. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 470  A.N. Zograph, Ancient Coinage. Ph. II: The Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Littoral, 1977, 334-335.

Trausi

(83 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Τραυσοί/ Trausoí, Latin Trausi). Thracian tribe, which can be located in the southwestern part of the Rhodope mountains; their customs are supposed to have been distinct from those of the other Thraci  (Hdt. 5,3 f.). According to Liv. 38,41,5 the T. lived on robbery; he mentions them in connection with the defeat of  Manlius [I 24] Vulso at Tempyra. According to Steph. Byz. s. v. T., the Greeks called the T. Agathyrsi. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, Političeska istorija na trakite, 1972, 58.

Taurike Chersonesos

(24 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ταυρικὴ Χερσόνησος; Taurikḕ Chersónēsos) see Chersonesus [2]. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography J. M. Mogaričev (Hrsg.), Problemy istorii i arheologii Krymy, 1994.

Dunax

(52 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Δοῦναξ; Doûnax, Dunuca, Dinax). Mountain range in western Thrace, probably the Rila mountains in Bulgaria (Ptol. 34,10,15 = Str. 4,6,12; Liv. 40,58,2: battle of the Thracians with the Bastarnae, 179 BC). It is not really possible to link homonymous personal names with this name. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Hebrus

(217 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἕβρος; Hébros). Southern Thracian river, modern Bulgarian Marica, Byzantine/Modern Greek Εὖρος, longest river after the Danube on the Balkan peninsula. According to Ps.-Plutarchus (De fluviis 3), its earlier name is supposed to have been Rhombus. Its headwaters lie in the Rila mountains (Thuc. 2,96,4). From there, it flows in an easterly direction through the fertile Thracian plain to  Hadrianopolis, where it is joined by the Tonzos, then turns toward the south and empties into th…

Bessi, Bessoi

(240 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βεσσοί; Bessoí). Term given to various Thracian tribal groupings, first mentioned by Hdt. 7,111 as part of the  Satrae in the western Rhodope mountains, but thereafter not again until the 2nd cent. BC (Pol. 23,8,4; Syll.3 710 A). The B. gained political significance because of their opposition to the Romans: defeated by Lucullus in 72 BC, by C. Octavius (ILS 47) in 59 BC, and brought to battle c. 15 years later by Brutus (Liv. Per. 77); in 29 BC M. Licinius Crassus attacked them, took away from them the Dionysus sanctuary in the Rhodope and trans…

Skapte Hyle

(68 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σκάπτη ὕλη/ Skáptē Hýlē, Σκαπτησύλη/ Skáptēsýlē). Unlocated township in the peraia of Thasos in the Pangaeum mountains with gold mines from which Thasos extracted 80 talents a year before the Persian Wars (Hdt. 6,46; Thuc. 1,100,2). The historian Thucydides had estates and also died there (Plut. Cimon 4,3; Markellinos, Vita Thucydidis 19,25,47). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography P. Perdrizet, Skaptésylé, in: Klio 10, 1910, 1-27  Müller, 100 f.

Amardi

(94 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἄμαρδοι; Ámardoi). Iranian town in  Media on the south bank of the  Caspian Sea, west of the Hyrcani ( Hyrcania), east of the  Cadusii (Str. 11,6,1; 8,1; 8; Plin. HN 6,36; Mela 3,39; 42 - joint source is  Eratosthenes). Not likely to be identical with the A. in the Persian armed forces under Xerxes (Aesch. Pers. 994), just as unlikely to be identical with the neighbours of the Persae (Arr. Ind. 40,6). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography F. C. Andreas, s. v. A., RE 1, 1729-1733 F. H. Weissbach, s. v. Mardoi, in: RE 14, 1648-1651.

Sinti

(119 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σιντοί/ Sintoí). Thracian tribe on the western bank of the Strymon, probably between the mountains Malaševska and Ogražden, possibly somewhat more in the south; western neighbour of the Illyrian Dardani (Str. 7a,1,36; App. Mithr. 55); the westernmost tribe of the kingdom of the Odrysae ( cf. Thuc. 2,98,1 on Sitalces' [1] campaign against Macedonia in 429 BC). The main centre of the S. was Heraclea Sintica, which has not yet been located (Diod. Sic. 31,8,8; Liv. 45,29,6). The Sínties in Hom. Od. 8,294 are not the same as the S. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibli…

Pliska

(227 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Slavonic; Greek Πλίσκοβα/ Plískoba). Residency in the first kingdom of the Bulgari, one of the successor states on the soil of the Roman Empire, in the years 681-843, 25 km to the east of Šumen at modern Pliska (formerly Aboba) in northeastern Bulgaria, to the north of the Haemus, where important mountain passes can be controlled, probably founded by Khan Asparuh. Originally built as a military fortress 23 km2 in area, with rectangular and circular wooden buildings and three concentric embankments, the innermost ring enclosing the palace area (0·5 km2). This city,…

Caeni

(136 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καινοί; Kainoí). Thracian tribe between Astae and Corpili in the region of the Paeti (Hdt. 7,110 Arr. Anab. 1,11,4). After the fall of the Odrysean kingdom, the C. were located in the area east of the river Hebrus spreading to the coasts of the Propontis and the Aegean Sea. The province Caenica at the lower reaches of the river Hebrus was named after this tribe (Plin. HN 4,47; Ptol. 3,11,6). In 188 BC, the C. followed the advice of Philip V and attacked the baggage train of Cn. Ma…

Caspian Sea

(290 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κασπία θάλαττα; Kaspía thálatta; also known as ‘Hyrcanian Sea’ after the pre-Iranian Caspii or Hyrcanii who settled on its south-western shore). The world's largest drainless salt lake (371,000 km2) with c. 50 smaller islands; in the west, it borders on the Caucasus, in the east on the Iranian highlands, in the south on the Elburz range, and in the north on the Russian lowlands. Rivers flowing into the Caspian Sea (CS) are: Volga (Tanais), Ural, Terek (Atrek), Sulak, and Kura (Cyrus). Whereas the CS was seen…

Melanditae

(69 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μελανδῖται/ Melandîtai). Greek name for a Thracian tribe north of Perinthus (Xen. An. 7,2,32; cf. the name of the region in Steph. Byz. s.v. Μελανδία). North of them was the tribal territory of the Thyni, in the east the ‘Thracian delta’ of Byzantium. Their territory belonged to the Hellenistic stratēgia of Astikḗ. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography T. Spiridonov, Istoriceska geografija na trakijskite plemena, 1983, 40f., 111f.

Cillae

(38 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κέλλαι; Kéllai). Mansio on the road from Philippopolis to Hadrianopolis, modern Černa gora (Bulgaria). Honorary decrees and dedications from the imperial period (IGBulg 1515ff.); It. Ant. 136; Tab. Peut. 568. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Berezan

(193 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Island (still a peninsula in antiquity) located in front of the mouth of the  Borysthenes and on which the oldest traces of settlement by Milesian colonists on the northern coast of the Black Sea have been found: Rhodian-Ionic ceramics from the end of the 7th cent. BC; the locality B. arose in the 2nd half of the 7th cent. (numerous graffiti; flourished at the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 5th cent.). Cult of Apollo Ietros and of Apatouria (Aphrodite). Olbia was possibly …

Symbolum

(60 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Thracian coastal mountain range, today also Simbolo, lying to the south-east of the Pangaeum. The road from Philippi across S. to the port of Neapolis [1] led across a narrow pass, significant in the Roman Civil War (autumn 42 BC; Plut. Brutus 38,2; Cass. Dio 47,35,3). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography TIR K 35,1 Philippi, 1993, 55.

Doiptunus

(58 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Tib. Iulius D. (also Doiptounos or Douptounos; IPE 2,49). The name is not Greek and appears here for the first time. Probably appointed by Byzantium as administrator of the Bosporus after AD 620, since the inscription with Christian symbols also mentions a comes. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 517.

Agrianes

(100 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγριᾶνες; Agriânes). Thracian or Paeonian tribe on the upper reaches of the  Strymon. As subjects of  Sitalces, they took part in the campaigns against  Perdiccas II in 429 BC (Thuc. 2,96); close relations with  Philippus II (FGH 115, Theopomp. F 145) and  Alexander III [4]; the latter was supported by their king  Langarus (Arr. Anab. 1,5,1-10). In Hellenistic times, they often served as mercenaries (Liv. 33,18; Pol. 2,65; 10,42). Ousted by the Dentheletae in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Ch. Danov, Altthrakie…

Dioscurias

(196 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius (Διοσκουρίας; Dioskourías). Greek pólis and port (Ps.-Scyl. 81) on the eastern shore of the Black Sea, mod. Suḫumi/Abhazia, according to Eratosthenes (Str. 1,3,2; 2,5,25) the easternmost coastal town of the Pontus Euxinus. No exact dates of foundation; the pottery suggests that it was founded by Milesians in the 6th cent. BC (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 10,4; Anon. Per. p. E. 7B). Important commercial centre …

Kamasarye Philoteknos

(107 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καμασαρύη Φιλότεκνος; Kamasarýē Philóteknos). Daughter of the Bosporan king Spartocus V and wife of his successor, Paerisades III, very active politically and mentioned in many inscriptions along with him (e.g. sacrificial list from Didyma, CIG 2, 2855, 178/7 BC; Syll.3 439 from Delphi among others). IOSPE I2 19 ( Panticapaeum) mentions K. as ruler of the Regnum Bosporanum and her son (?) Paerisades IV. She married Argotas before 160 BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. N. Grakov, Materialy no istorii Skifii v grečeskih nadpisjah Ba…

Niconia

(87 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νικωνία, Νικώνιον/ Nikōnía, Nikṓníon). A town in the north of the Black Sea area, northeast of the Tyras (Dniester) estuary, opposite Ophiusa (Str. 7,3,16; Νικώνιον/ Nikṓníon: Peripl. m. eux. 61 GGM 1 p. 418; Ps.-Scyl. 68; Ptol. 3,10,16) and near the present-day village of Roxolany. Steph. Byz. s.v. Νικωνία mistakenly located the town on the Danube. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography M.V. Agbunov, Davn'ogrečeskii Nikonij, in: Arheologija 32, 1979, 17-25  G.A. Koselenko, Antičnye gosudarstva Severnogo Pričernomor'ja, 1984, 29f.  M.L. Ber…
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