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Scipio Nasica Corculum, P. Cornelius (233)

(2,564 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 October 2010. About this Historian Historian: Scipio Nasica Corculum, P. Cornelius Jacoby number: 233 Attested works: Historian's date: 2nd century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | C. Autobiographies, Memoirs and Memorabilia | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 233 F 1 Source: Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 15.1-16.4 Work mentioned: Source date: 1st century AD 2nd century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: military history, ancient - Library of Congress military history, ancient - …

Aratos of Sicyon (231)

(9,644 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans | Eckstein, Arthur
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 April 2013. About this Historian Historian: Aratos of Sicyon Jacoby number: 231 Attested works: Historian's date: 3rd century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | C. Autobiographies, Memoirs and Memorabilia | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 231 T 1 Source: Anonymus, Life of Aratos 79.12 M Work mentioned: Source date: 3rd century BC Source language: Greek Fragment subject: military history, ancient - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby unknown, Life of Aratos, 79.12 Mκαὶ ἄλλοι δὲ πολλοὶ γεγ…

Ineditum Vaticanum (839)

(5,440 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 April 2011. About this Historian Historian: Ineditum Vaticanum Jacoby number: 839 Attested works: Historian's date: 3rd century BC 2nd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XXIX. Rome and Italy Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 839 F 1 Source: Synesios, Codex vaticanus, 435, fol. 220 Work mentioned: Source date: 1st century AD 2nd century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: mythology - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Synesios, Cod…

Diokles of Peparethos (820)

(4,721 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 October 2010. About this Historian Historian: Diokles of Peparethos Jacoby number: 820 Attested works: Historian's date: 3rd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XXIX. Rome and Italy Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 820 T 1 Source: Athenaios, Deipnosophists, 2, 22 Work mentioned: Source date: 2nd century AD 3rd century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: food - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Athenaios, Deipnosophists, 2, 22Δι…

Pyrrhos of Epeiros (229)

(1,301 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 October 2010. About this Historian Historian: Pyrrhos of Epeiros Jacoby number: 229 Attested works: Historian's date: 3rd century BC 2nd century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | C. Autobiographies, Memoirs and Memorabilia | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 229 F 1 Source: Dionysios of Halikarnassos, Roman Antiquities 20.10.1-2; 20.12.1-2 Work mentioned: Source date: 1st century BC Source language: Greek Fragment subject: military history, ancient - Library of Congress military history, a…

Aufidius, Gnaeus (814)

(1,088 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 October 2010. About this Historian Historian: Aufidius, Gnaeus Jacoby number: 814 Attested works: Historian's date: 1st century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XXIX. Rome and Italy Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 814 T 1a Source: Cicero, M. Tullius, Tusculan Disputations, 5, 112 Work mentioned: Source date: 1st century BC Source language: eng Fragment subject: history, ancient - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Cicero, M. Tullius, Tuscul…

Antigonos (816)

(1,907 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 April 2010. About this Historian Historian: Antigonos Jacoby number: 816 Attested works: uncertain: T1, T2, F3; Italian History: F1, F2 Historian's date: 3rd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XXIX. Rome and Italy Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 816 T 1 Source: Dionysios of Halikarnassos, Roman Antiquities, 1,6,1 Work mentioned: uncertain Source date: 1st century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: criticism - Library of Congress hi…

Promathion (817)

(1,424 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 April 2010. About this Historian Historian: Promathion Jacoby number: 817 Attested works: History of Italy: F1, Historian's date: 5th century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XXIX. Rome and Italy Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 817 F 1 Source: Plutarch (Ploutarchos), Romulus, 2,3-6 Work mentioned: History of Italy Source date: 2nd century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: constitutional history, ancient - Library of Congress oracles - …

Scipio Africanus Maior, P. Cornelius (232)

(3,166 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 October 2010. About this Historian Historian: Scipio Africanus Maior, P. Cornelius Jacoby number: 232 Attested works: Historian's date: 3rd century BC 2nd century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | C. Autobiographies, Memoirs and Memorabilia | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 232 F 1 Source: Polybios, Histories 10.2.1-9.3 Work mentioned: Source date: 2nd century BC Source language: Greek Fragment subject: autobiography - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Polybios, Histories, 10.2.1-…

Rutilius Rufus, P. (815)

(8,598 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 April 2011. About this Historian Historian: Rutilius Rufus, P. Jacoby number: 815 Attested works: Historian's date: 2nd century BC 1st century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XXIX. Rome and Italy Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 815 T 1a Source: Appian (Appianos of Alexandria), Wars in Spain, 382 Work mentioned: Source date: 2nd century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: magistrates, roman - Library of Congress military history, ancient - …

Scipio, P. Cornelius (811)

(760 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans
This entry was prepared by Hans Beck and published on 1 October 2010. About this Historian Historian: Scipio, P. Cornelius Jacoby number: 811 Attested works: Historian's date: 2nd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XXIX. Rome and Italy Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 811 T 1 Source: Livy (T. Livius), History of Rome (Ab urbe condita), 40.42.13 Work mentioned: Source date: 1st century BC, 1st century BC- 1st century AD Source language: eng Fragment subject: biography-to 500 - Library of Congress magi…

Byzantine Empire

(2,849 words)

Author(s): Hans-Georg Beck
A. Characteristics The rise of the Byzantine world was neither the awakening of a mindless people to historical self-consciousness nor the entry of a new “barbarian” nation into the old Graeco-Roman civilization of the Mediterranean. Byzantium was, in fact, a late form of Mediterranean civilization itself with all its distinctive features, a late form of the Roman Empire, of the ancient Hellenistic mentality and the characteristic Mediterranean way of life. Byzantium regarded its inherited forms a…

Teledamus

(185 words)

Author(s): Antoni, Silke (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Son of Odysseus and Calypso (Τηλέδαμος; Tēlédamos). According to Eust. on Hom. Od. 16,118, the author of the Tēlegonía names a son of Odysseus and Calypso“Telegonus or Teledamus”, which would make him the brother of Nausithous [2] and Nausinous. The passage is evidently corrupt, since elsewhere Telegonus is Odysseus' son with Circe. For a discussion of conjectures: [1]. Antoni, Silke (Kiel) Bibliography 1 K. Scherling, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 313 f. [German version] [2] Son of Agamemnon and Cassandra (Paus.: Τελέδαμος/ Telédamos, schol. Hom. Od.: Τελέδημος/ Telé…

Pherenicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Φερένικος; Pherénikos). [German version] [1] Theban politician Theban, son of Cephisodotus, who had taken in Athenians who had fled from the Thirty Tyrants ( Triákonta ) into Thebes (Lys. fr. 78). After the occupation of the Cadmeia in 382 BC P., a follower of Ismenias' [1] faction, had to escape to Athens (Plut. Pelopidas 5,3). During the emigrant's attack on Thebes in December 379 P. waited with his people in the Thriasian Plain until a group led by Pelopidas had eliminated the polemarchs in Thebes (Plut. Pelopidas 8,1; see also Plut. Mor. 576c; 577a). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.…

Phoebidas

(201 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Φοιβίδας/ Phoibídas). Spartan general, probably related by marriage to the house of Agesilaus [2] [1. 147f.]. In 382 BC, supposed to bring new troops to his brother Eudamidas [1], who was fighting Olynthus, on the way he marched to Thebes and in a surprise attack captured the Cadmeia, the fortress of Thebes, during the Thesmophoria (Xen. Hell.  5,2,25-36;  Diod. Sic. 15,20,1f.; Plut. Pelopidas 5; Plut. Agesilaus 23f.; Plut.  Mor. 576a-577d; Androtion FGrH 324 F 50). Xenophon (Xen.…

Cleopompus

(71 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Κλεόπομπος; Kleópompos). Son of Cleinias, Athenian, as stratēgós in 431/0 BC led a fleet of 30 triremes against Opuntian Locris and conquered Thronium (Thuc. 2.26; Diod. Sic. 12.44.1). In the following year, jointly with  Hagnon [1] he commanded the second expeditionary corps to win back Potidaea (Thuc. 2.58.1f.).  Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin 1676 C. W. Fornara, The Athenian Board of Generals from 501 to 404, 1971, 54f.

Themison

(339 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεμίσων; Themísōn). [German version] [1] Tyrant from Eretria [1], 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1], who occupied Oropus in 366 BC with some of the town’s exiles. The people controlling the operation were based in Thebes, and assistance also came from there in order to fend off an Athenian counter-attack. After an arbitration tribunal the pólis went to the Thebans, who maintained T.’s regime (Diod. Sic. 15,76,1; Dem. Or. 18,99; Xen. Hell. 7,4,1). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Buckler, The Theban Hegemony, 1980, 193 f. [German version] [2] Th. from Laodicea Greek doctor, …

Theocrines

(60 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Θεοκρίνης; Theokrínēs). Athenian from the Hybadae deme (IG II/III2 2,2, 2409, 44 f.), a notorious sykophántēs (cf. Dem. Or. 18,313), who made a living from threats of court action and extortion. A forensic speech by Epichares from 342 BC ([Dem.] Or. 58) is directed against him. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Traill, PAA, 508320  Schäfer, vol. 4 (appendices), 266-280.

Pammenes

(478 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Παμμένης; Pamménēs). [German version] [1] Close friend of Epaminondas Theban, close friend of Epaminondas. On his second Peloponnesian campaign, Epaminondas entrusted the still young P. with garrisoning Sicyon (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,16,3), and in 368 BC with a mission to protect Megalopolis (Paus. 8,27,2). From 368 to 365, Philippus [4] II, who was about the same age as P., stayed as a hostage in the house of P.' parents ([1. 118] with bibliography). After the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea, P. became a…

Lacedaemonius

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λακεδαιμόνιος; Lakedaimónios). Athenian, son of Cimon [2] and Isodice (Plut. Cimon 16). He served as hípparchos around 445 BC (IG I3 511; [1. 45-49]). In the summer of 433 L., as stratēgós, was sent to Corcyra with ten ships to assist the allied island in its conflict with Corinth (Thuc. 1,45,2f.; Plut. Pericles 29; ML 61). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. R. Bugh, The Horsemen of Athens, 1988. Davies 8429, XIII G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War, 31989, 76f. Traill, PAA 600810.

Procles

(448 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Προκλῆς/ Proklês). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king The legendary Spartan king. P. was considered to be a son of Aristodemus [1] - and hence a direct descendant of Heracles [1] - and the ancestor of the Eurypontids, named after Eurypon, his son (Hdt. 8,131) or grandson (Plut. Lycurgus 1). As late as the 5th cent. BC, P. and his twin brother Eurysthenes [1] and not, e.g., Lycurgus [4], appear in Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) as the framers of the Spartan constitution. Ephorus (FGrH 70 F 117) also…

Theopompus

(1,730 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Et al.
(Θεόπομπος/ Theópompos). [German version] [1] Spartan king, around 700 BC Among the early Spartan kings, the Eurypontid T. (Eurypontids), son of Nicander [1] (Hdt. 8,131), is the only one securely identified in a contemporary source: Tyrtaeus (fr. 2 Gentili/Prato) names him as a victorious king in the 1st Messenian War ( c. 700/690-680/70 BC). He was probably the colleague of the Agiad Polydorus [6] (Paus. 4,7,7), appears to have played a role in Spartan-Argive conflicts around Cynuria [1] (Paus. 3,7,5) and in disputes between Spartans and Arcad…

Polyanthes

(79 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πολυάνθης/ Polyánthēs) from Corinth commanded a squadron in a sea battle off the Achaean coast in 413 BC (Thuc. 7,34,2). Bribed by  Timocrates with Persian gold in 395, P. and Timolaus steered an anti-Spartan and probably also democratic course, which resulted in the Corinthian League (StV 225) (Xen. Hell. 3,5,1; Paus. 3,9,8; Hell. Oxy. 2,3). Corinthus (II B); Peloponnesian War (with map) Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984  H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 83.

Leobotes

(65 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] [1] see Labotas see Labotas Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian, 5th cent. BC (Λεωβώτης; Leōbṓtēs). Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family; around 467/6 BC he issued an eisangelia against the already banished Themistocles ( Eisangelia ) because of high treason and achieved his conviction (Plut. Themistocles 23; Plut. Mor. 605E; Craterus FGrH 342 F 11). Davies 9688,XII. Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Maeandrius

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μαιάνδριος; Maiándrios). [German version] [1] M. of Samos Tyrant of Samos, 6th cent. BC Confidant of the tyrant Polycrates, conducted negotiations with the Persian satrap Oroetes (Hdt. 3,123; cf. Lucian. Charidemus 14) for him. After the death of Polycrates, M. himself managed to become tyrant in about 521 BC but soon had to give way to Syloson, who was appointed by the Persians (Hdt. 3,142-6). He fled to Sparta but was expelled from the country by the ephors because of his wealth (Hdt. 3,148; Plut. Mor. 224a-b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Roisman, M. of Samos, in: Historia …

Poliarchos

(148 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(πολίαρχος/ políarchos). [German version] [1] Senior official in Thessalian cities (3rd cent. BC) ('High city official'). In the 3rd cent. BC, the cities of Thessaly had councils of five políarchoi, cf. IG IX 2,459 (Crannon); IG IX 2,1233 (Larisa [1]). The etymology suggests that their duties probably encompassed the military and civil interests of the polis. The division of powers with the other city council, the tagoí, is unclear (cf. [2]). The archipolíarchos served as chair (IG IX 2,1233). Tagos; Thessalians, Thessalia Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Helly, L'état Thess…

Olympiodorus

(850 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ὀλυμπιόδωρος; Olympiódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, managed between 307 and 301 BC to induce Aetolia to enter into an alliance against Cassander and to relieve Elatea (Paus. 1,26,3; 10,18,7; 34,3). Although Demetrius [2] Poliorketes twice illegally appointed him (in 294/3 and 293/2) as eponymous árchōn (Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 9; IG II2 378 = [1. D 70]; IG II2 389 and SEG 21,354; IG II2 649 = [2. 7f.]; Agora 16, 167; [3. 124 No. 9]; cf. in general Plut. Demetrius 34), O., when Athens seceded from Demetrius in 2…

Pasion

(382 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων/ Pasíōn). [German version] [1] Greek mercenary commander (late 5th cent. BC) P. of Megara led a mercenary unit to Cyrus [3] in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,2,3), but later, in Myriandrus and under unexplained circumstances, he broke away from the army of Cyrus, together with the mercenary leader Xenias  (ibid. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Freedman from Athens, 4th cent. BC The example of P. provides a good insight in the business of an Athenian trapezítēs . Originally, P. was the slave of Antisthenes and Archestratus; after his …

Peisander

(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…

Oenobius

(54 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ᾨνόβιος/ Ōinóbios). Athenian from the dḗmos of Decelea. In the year 410/409 B.C. he was in Thrace as a strategos (IG I3 101, l. 47). O. is probably identical to the person who requested  in the year 404/3 that Thucydides be recalled (Paus. 1,23,9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 2191  PA 11357.

Learchus

(81 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λέαρχος; Léarchos). Son of Callimachus, Athenian. L. was at the court of Sitalces in 430 BC when Peloponnesian envoys arrived who were meant to persuade the Thracian king to break with Athens. Through Prince Sadocus, who had been given Attic citizenship shortly before this, L. managed to have them arrested, and they were deported to Athens and executed (Thuc. 2,67). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 1778 Traill, PAA, 602725 S. Hornblower, A Commentary on Thucydides, 1, 1991, 350f.

Cleophantus

(273 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κλεόφαντος; Kleóphantos). [German version] [1] Son of Themistocles and Archippe Son of  Themistocles and Archippe (Plut. Themistocles 32; Pl. Men. 93d-e), was honoured with civic rights in Lampsacus (ATL III,111-3). Davies 6669,VI. Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Greek physician, 3rd cent. BC Greek doctor, active c. 270-250 BC, brother of  Erasistratus, pupil of  Chrysippus [3] of Cnidus and founder of a medical school (Gal., 17A 603 K.). He wrote a paper on the medical prescription of wine, which provided the model for a similar…

Pasicles

(171 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πασικλῆς; Pasiklês). [German version] [1] Athenian from the deme of Acharnae (4th cent. BC) Athenian of the deme Acharnae, son of the banker Pasion [2], born in 380 BC. After the death of his father in 370 the wealth was divided in accord with the will between P. and his elder brother Apollodorus [1], and a Phormion appointed P.'s guardian (Dem. Or. 36,8-10). On his majority in 362 P. took over the banking house (ibid. 36,11; 37) and between 362 and 360 apparently took part in his brother's costly trierarchi…

Mys

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μῦς; Mỹs). [German version] [1] Karian from Euromos, around 480 BC Carian from Euromus, who visited several oracle shrines in Boeotia and Phocis in 480/479 BC on behalf of Mardonius [1]. In the Ptoion mountains the oracle replied to him in the Carian language (Hdt. 8,133-135; Paus. 9,23,6; cf. Plut. Mor. 412b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Toreutic sculptor and and fellow artist of Phidias Toreutic sculptor in metal and fellow artist of Phidias. M. executed the shield reliefs on Phidias’s ‘Athena Promachos with a representation of the fight betwe…

Oxythemis

(75 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀξύθεμις/ Oxýthemis) from Larisa. Close confidant of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes (Phylarchus FGrH 81 F 12), awarded citizenship and cultic honours after the liberation of Athens from Macedonian occupation in 307 BC (IG II2 558; cf. Demochares FGrH 75 F 1). In 289 he led negotiations for Demetrius with Agathocles [2] (Diod. 21,15f.). Antigonus [2] had him executed (Ath. 578b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Habicht, Gottmenschentum und griechische Städte, 1956, 55-58  Id., Athen, 1995, 87.

Phyllidas

(98 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Φυλλίδας/ Phyllídas, also Φιλλίδας/ Phillídas). Theban, in 379 BC scribe of the polemarch Archias [3]. He established contact with exiled Thebans around Melon and Pelopidas in Athens and made the necessary preparations for an attempt on Archias' life. Xenophon (Xen. Hell. 5,4,2-9) also ascribes to P. the murder of Leontiades [2] (but see Plut. Pelopidas 7-11; Plut. Mor. 577b-d; 588b; 594d; 596; 598). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R. J. Buck, Boiotia and the Boiotian League, 1994, 72-78  J. DeVoto, The Liberation of Thebes in 379/8 BC, in: R.F. Sutton (ed.), Stu…

Iphicrates

(278 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰφικράτης; Iphikrátēs). Son of Timotheus, an Athenian from Rhamnous, and an important general in the first half of the 4th cent. BC. In the Corinthian War, I. achieved prominence by creating a powerful corps of peltasts with which he operated in the Peloponnese between 393 and 390 and annihilated a Spartan   mora near Corinth (Xen. Hell. 4,5,11-18; Diod. Sic. 14,91,2; 15,44; Nep. Iphicrates 1). As commander he was victorious at the Hellespont against  Anaxibius in 389 BC (Xen. Hell. 4,8,34-39). Following the  Ki…

Lysias

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Λυσίας; Lysías). [German version] [1] Attic logographos, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic logographos , 459/8 or c. 445 to c. 380 BC Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] A. Life The main biographical facts can be gathered from L.'s speeches (esp. or. 12), from which the later vitae (Dion. Hal. de Lysia; Ps.-Plut. Mor. 835c ff.) and Byzantine learning (Phot. Bibl. 262; Suda s.v. L.) drew partly. Born probably around 445, L. left Athens at the age of 15 and together with his older brother Polemarchus settled in the Panhellenic colony o…

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225), for which he is claimed to have received plenty of funds from Timocr…

Ismenias

(791 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἰσμηνίας; Ismēnías or Ἱσμηνίας; Ismēnías). [German version] [1] Prominent Theban politician, 5th/4th cent. BC Prominent Theban politician, famous for his wealth (Pl. Men. 90a). After the end of the Peloponnese War (431-404 BC), I., with  Androclidas, came to the fore as leaders of a Hetaeria which opposed the pro-Spartan politics of  Leontiades. The goals were to push back the Leontiades faction and to bring about a new orientation in international politics towards Athens (Hell. Oxy. 12,1f.; 13,1; Xen. Hell.…

Onomacles

(98 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνομακλῆς/ Onomaklês). Athenian politician. As strategos, he led a squadron to Samos in 412/1 BC and against Miletus (Thuc. 8,25,1; 30,2). After the oligarchic coup, he belonged to the council of 400 ( tetrakósioi ), but in 411 was indicted in an eisangelía trial and escaped to avoid conviction (Plut. Mor. 833f) [1. 385]. O. later returned to Athens and belonged to the thirty ( triákonta ; Xen. Hell. 2,3,2). Lysias ( Perí tēs Onomakléous thygatrós, fr. 104 Thalheim) mentioned his daughter. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 B. Bleckmann, Athens Weg in die Niederl…

Synodos

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Gerber, Simon (Kiel)
(ἡ σύνοδος/ hē sýnodos; literally 'meeting', 'the synod'). Greek name for assemblies and meetings of various kinds; see Associations. [German version] I. Greek public law As a term in Greek public law, synodos means in general the meeting in rotation of representatives or citizens as a whole to exercise political powers in a body of federal states [1.1318f.]. In the Achaean Confederacy (Achaeans, Achaea) of the Hellenistic Period, synodos was the customary term for the central decision organ: initially the full assembly of citizens, which convened four times a ye…

Tagos

(144 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (ταγός; tagós). Tagos (etymologically from táxis, cf. German Herzog) is usually seen as an elected (originally for life, later in the event of war: IG IX 2,257) highest official of the Thessalian League [1. 237-249; 2]. The effect of the dominance of the noble 'clans' (Aleuadae; Echecratidae; Scopadae) in the 5th cent. BC was that the office of tageía lost its significance [3. 125-127]; under Iason [2] the office temporarily gained a new prestige [5]. Recent studies, in contrast, see tagos as a genuinely local official (the official term for a high office instead being a…

Neocles

(460 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Νεοκλῆς; Neoklȇs). [German version] [1] Father of the Athenian politician Themistocles The politically inactive father of the Athenian politician and commander Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 1; [1. 60-66; 69f.]; therefore Themistocles is called a ‘newcomer ’in Hdt. 7,143) ; aristocrat (Nep. Themistocles 1), a member of the Lycomidae family. N.'s wife was possibly non-Athenian. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography 1 F.J. Frost, Plutarch's Themistocles, 1980. Davies, 212ff.  Traill, PAA 706445. [German version] [2] Probable son of Themistocles Probably eldest s…

Scopadae

(169 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Σκοπάδαι; Skopádai). Noble family from Crannon, which, beside the Aleuadae, was one of the leading clans of Thessaly in the 6th century BC. On account of their wealth from cattle and pasturing (cf. Theoc. 16,36-39) the S. were from time to time at the lead of the Thessalian League (Tagos). As in the case of Aleuas, constitutive measures in establishing the organisation of the Thessalian army are also ascribed to their mythical/historical founder, Scopas I, (cf. Xen. Hell. 6,1,19; …

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodos, legate of Pharnabazus [2], c. 400 BC Rhodian. In the winter of 396/5 BC…

Ptoeodorus

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πτωιόδωρος/ Ptōiódōros, MSS Πτοιόδωρος/ Ptoiódōros). [German version] [1] Exiled Theban, c. 425/4 BC Exiled Theban; c. 425/4 BC, ringleader of a combined Athenian action against Siphae and Delium [1] intended to topple the oligarchic government of the Boeotian League (Thuc. 4,76,2 f.). The undertaking failed miserably. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.J. Buck, Boiotia and the Boiotian League, 432-371 B.C., 1994, 16-18. [German version] [2] Politician from Megara, c. 350 BC Influential and wealthy politician from Megara; came into contact c. 360 BC with the banished Dio…

Nicophemus

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νικόφημος/ Nikóphēmos). Athenian, confidant of Conon [1], who in 395/4 BC made him commander of the Persian fleet (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4; Hell. Oxy. 15). In 393 he commanded a force occupying Cythera (Xen. Hell. 4,8,8) [1. 82, 126]. When he returned to Cyprus, he led a (failed) mission in aid of Evagoras [1] (389 BC) together with his son Aristophanes [1]. N. was then summarily condemned and executed at Athens, and his fortune was confiscated (Lys. 19,7; 11f.; 35f.; 42-44). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. Funke, Homonoia und Arche, 1980. PA 11066.

Koine Eirene

(572 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κοινὴ εἰρήνη; koinḕ eirḗnē). ‘Common peace’, multilateral peace concept of the 4th cent. BC. Characteristics are demands for the autonomy ( autonomía ) of the polis as well as compulsoriness for all, that is, not only for the warring Greek states [1. XVI]. In contemporary sources, the term is attested only rarely, first in Andocides (3,17; 34, in the year 392/1), who advocated a κ.ε. πᾶσι τοῖς Ἕλλησι (‘Koine Eirene for all Greeks’). One such Koine Eirene (KE) was sworn to in the year 386 in Sparta after negoti…

Telliads

(26 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τελλιάδαι; Telliádai). Family of seers in Elis (Hdt. 9,37). Hegesistratus [2] and Tellias are known by name (Hdt. 8,27,3-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne)
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