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(369 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( Nefza ), the name of a Berber tribe (ethnic: Nafzī) belonging to the group which the mediaeval genealogists and historians mention under the name of Butr [ q.v.]. It had spread out over a large part of Barbary, between Ifrīḳiya [ q.v.] and Fās, passing through the region of Constantine, Oran, Tlemcen and the Rīf. In contemporary Tunisia, to the east of the massif of Kroumirie [see k̲h̲umayr ], there extends the country of the Nafzas, a fertile region fringed with woodlands abounding in game. Near the D̲j̲abal al-Abyaḍ, at ca 150 km/96 miles to the west of Tunis by road and 140 km/90…

Abu ’l-Asad al-Ḥimmānī

(385 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nubāta b. ʿabd allāh , minor poet of the ʿAbbāsid period, originally from Dīnawar. His talent was only moderate, and it was ʿAllawayh/ʿAllūya who rescued him from oblivion, since this singer, the poet’s friend, introduced him to the great men of the age and, above all, set some of his verses to music, so that they enjoyed a great success. His career seems to have been quite a lengthy one. He is found, first of all, satirising as early as 153/770 two of al-Manṣūr’s mawālī , Ṣāʿid and Maṭar (al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, Wuzarāʾ , 124), and then frequenting Abū Dulaf al-ʿId̲j̲lī [see al-ḳāsim b. ʿīsā …

Mūsā b. ʿUḳba

(168 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-Asadī (after 55-141/675-758), early Medinan scholar and historian, especially interested in the Prophet’s expeditions or mag̲h̲āzī [ q.v.]. A mawlā of al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām’s and a pupil of al-Zuhrī [ q.vv.], he taught in the Prophet’s mosque in Medina, showing in his work the characteristic, increasing emphasis of the Medinan school on isnāds and also displaying a concern in giving dates for the events which he describes. His Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzī , transmitted by his nephew Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿUḳba, has not survived as a complete work, …

al-Niẓāmiyya, al-Madrasa

(38 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the designation given to the colleges of Sunnī instruction founded in ʿIrāḳ, al-D̲j̲azīra and Persia by the great Sald̲j̲ūḳ vizier Niẓām al-Mulk [ q-v.]. See for these, madrasa, I. 4, and niẓām al-mulk . (Ed.)


(69 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Manōhargárh , a fortress on a lofty rock, some 2,500 feet/770 m. high, in lat. 16° N. and long. 74° 1′ E., in the Western Ghats range of peninsular India. Formerly in the southernmost part of the British Indian province of Bombay, it is now just within the southwestern corner of the Maharashtra state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Imperial gazetteer of India 2, xvii, 200.


(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ‘the Arab country’, a term much in use until recently to denote the Persian province of Ḵh̲ūzistān; the latter name was revived during the reign of Riḍā S̲h̲āh Pahlawī. Fur further particulars see k̲h̲ūzistān . Following Persian usage, ʿArabistān denotes occasionally the Arabian peninsula. In Ottoman administrative documents from the 16th century it is occasionally applied to the Arabic-speaking provinces of the Empire, more especially to Syria. (Ed.)


(208 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Meḥmed Ḏj̲elāl bey (1254-1300/1838-82), Turkish writer and poet, and elder brother of Red̲j̲āʾī-zāde Maḥmūd Ekrem Bey [see ekrem bey ]. He had a moderately successful administrative career, entering the Translation Office ( Terd̲j̲üme Odasi̊ ) of the Sublime Porte in 1270/1853-4, being appointed in 1279/1862-3 chief clerk to the embassy in St. Petersburg, becoming assistant secretary ( mektūbī muʿāwini ) under Aḥmed D̲j̲ewdet Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in 1282-1865-6, when the latter became wālī of Aleppo, and finally chief secretary of the provinces of K…


(302 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also kanbāniya , with kanfāniya once attested in the Calendrier de Cordoue ), from Spanish campaña , in general denotes in Spanish Arabic usage, the countryside, but in particular the Campiña, sc. the vast, gently-undulating plain which forms the southern part of the kūra of Cordova; al-Idrīsī, Description de lAfrique et de lEspagne , ed. and tr. Dozy-De Goeje, 174, 209, makes it an iḳlim whose capital was Cordova and its main towns al-Zahrāʾ, Ecija, Baena, Cabra and Lucena. After leaving the capital, the approach to it was first thr…


(429 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), noun of unity ḳaṣaba , any plant with a long and hollow stem like the reed ( Arundo donax ), to which the term is especially applied (see Muk̲h̲aṣṣaṣ , xi, 46). The bamboo is called k̲h̲ayzurān , but ḳaṣab is a component of certain expressions denoting in particular the sugar cane ( ḳaṣab al-sukkar, etc.) [see following article] and the sweet flag (or fragrant rush, ḳaṣab al-d̲h̲arīra ; see H. P. J. Renaud and G. S. Colin, Tuḥfat al-aḥbāb , Paris 1934, 152; M. Levey, The medical formulary . . . of al-Kindī , Madison-London 1966, 316), or even the papyrus reed ( ḳaṣab al-bardī or just al-bardī

Niẓām al-Mulk

(145 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Čīn Ḳilič K̲h̲ān , Ḳamar al-dīn , founder of the Indian Muslim state of Ḥaydarābād in the early 12th/18th century and a dominant figure in the military affairs of the decaying Mug̲h̲al empire from his appointment as governor of the Deccan by the Emperor Farruk̲h̲-siyar [ q.v.] till his death in 1161/1748. In the early years of his governorship he was the deadly foe of his rivals for influence in the empire, the Bārha Sayyids [ q.v. in Suppl.], and after his victory over them at S̲h̲akarkheldā in 1137/1724, virtually independent ruler in Ḥaydarābād with the additional ti…


(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sandān , a port on the western coast of peninsular India, mentioned by the early Islamic geographers (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, Ibn Ḥawḳal, the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam ) as a flourishing mercantile town with a mixed population of Hindus and Muslims. It has been identified with the Sanjam of Portuguese maps and the St. John of English ones and as lying south of Daman and north of Thāna, hence in the modern Bombay state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, 57, comm. 244-5 S. Maqbul Ahmad, India and the neighbouring territories in the Kitāb Nuzḥat al-Mus̲h̲tāq ... of al-S̲…


(73 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. alp arslān , the Sald̲j̲ūḳ, was sent by Barkiyārūk against Arslan Arg̲h̲ūn, another son of Alp Arslan, who was trying to make himself independent in Ḵh̲urāsān. In the struggle between the two brothers, Būrī-Bars was at first successful, but in the second encounter, in 488/1095, his troops were scattered and he himself was taken prisoner and strangled by his brother’s orders. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 179 Houtsma, Recueil, ii, 257. ¶


(189 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mīrzā ʿAlī Akbar (b. 1862 in S̲h̲emākha, d. 1911 in Bākū), Azerbaijani satirical poet and journalist. After the First Russian Revolution of 1905, a humorous and satirical literature grew up in Russian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, seen especially in the weekly journal Mollā Naṣreddīn founded at Tiflis in 1906 by Ḏj̲elāl Meḥmed Ḳulī-zāde [see d̲j̲arīda. iv], which attacked the old literary forms, backwardness in education and religious fanaticism, achieving a circulation also in Turkey and Persian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. One of the writers in it was Ṣābir (who als…


(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. fityān , strictly “young man”, has assumed a certain number of meanings in Arabic [see futuwwa ]: here we confine ourselves to one exclusively Andalusian usage. In Muslim Spain the slaves, whether eunuchs or not, employed in the service of the prince and his household, and then of the ḥād̲j̲ib [ q.v.] at the time when the latter was in practice taking over the reins of power, were in fact called g̲h̲ilmān (sing, g̲h̲ulām [ q.v.]), whilst those who held an elevated rank in the palace hierarchy bore the title fatā , the entire management of the household being …


(483 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “five” still possesses, in several Muslim countries, as amongst peoples of ancient times, a magical value in connection with the use of the fingers of the hand as a defence against the evil eye [see ʿayn ]. An efficacious method of protection against the evil eye, especially in North Africa but also in certain parts of the Near East also, consists essentially in stretching out the right hand, with the fingers spread out, towards the person whose glance can harm, and in pronouncing a formula containing the word k̲h̲amsa , e.g. k̲h̲amsa fī ʿayni-k


(119 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mīr Muḥammad Taḳī , of Aḥmadābād in Gud̲j̲arāt (d. 1173/1759-60), author of a collection of tales in 15 volumes entitled Bustān-i K̲h̲ayāl , composed in Persian prose between 1155/1742 ¶ 1742 and 1169/1756, at the request of his patron Nawwāb Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān, or, according to one manuscript, for the two brothers Nawwāb Ras̲h̲īd K̲h̲ān and Nawwāb Muḥammad Isḥāḳ K̲h̲ān, sons of D̲j̲aʿfar ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (Nawwāb of Bengal 1170-4/1757-61 and 1176-8/1763-5); an account of the contents of this work, which is made up partly of histor…


(216 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a., pl. ayyām ), “day” (a Common Semitic word, e.g. Akkad. ūmum , Hebr. yōm , Aram. yawmā , ESA ywm ), denoting the whole 24-hour cycle making up a day, whereas nahār means “the daylight period”, i.e. from sunrise to sunset. See further on this, al-layl wa ’l-nahār . Yawm occurs as an isolated term in various specialised uses, in particular, in pre- and early Islamic times in the meaning of “day of battle”; for this, see ayyām al-ʿarab . The pl. ayyām can also occur, especially in early Arabic poetry, in a similar sense to its apparent antonym layālī

Ibn ʿAbdūn

(583 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd Ibn ʿAbdūn al-Fihrī , was an Andalusian kātib and poet born in Evora. Early in life his talents attracted the attention of the governor of this city, ʿUmar Ibn al-Afṭas, and he became his secretary when the latter became ruler of Badajoz [see baṭalyaws ] assuming the laḳab al-Mutawakkil, in 471/1078 [see afṭasids ]. After the fall of the dynasty and the capture of Badajoz in 487/1095 by the Almoravid general Sīr b. Abī Bakr, Ibn ʿAbdūn entered the service of the Almoravids and became kātib to Yūsuf b. Tās̲h̲fīn and to his son ʿAlī. He died in Evora in 529/1134. ʿIbn A…


(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the branch of the Umayyad dynasty of Arab caliphs in early Islam who formed the first and shorter-lasting line of the dynasty, being predecessors of the Marwānids [ q.v.]. The line took its name from Abū Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.], whose son Muʿāwiya I became caliph in 41/61, to be followed briefly by his son Yazīd I and the latter’s young son Muʿāwiya II, who died in 64/683. The succession was then taken up by the parallel branch of Marwān b. al-Ḥakam [ q.v.]. For the general history of the Sufyānids, see umayyads and the articles on the individual rulers, and for the post-132/750 eschato…

Ṣalāt-i Maʿkūsa

(106 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., p.), literally, “the act of Muslim worship performed upside-down”, one of the extreme ascetic practices found among extravagant members of the dervish orders, ¶ such as in mediaeval Muslim India among the Čis̲h̲tiyya [ q.v.], where it formed part of the forty days’ retreat or seclusion ( k̲h̲alwa , arbaʿīniyya , cǐlia ) undertaken to heighten spiritual awareness [see k̲h̲alwa ]. This practice was one of those done in tortured or difficult circumstances, in this case hanging on the end of a rope over the mouth of a well; see čis̲h̲tiyya, at Vol. II, 55b, and hind. v. Islam, at Vol. III,…


(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Persian officer who, at the battle of D̲h̲ū Ḳar [ q.v.], was in command of the Persian troops who were driven back by the Bakr b. Wāʾil [ q.v.] and who was killed in the battle. Al-Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲, ii, 228 = ed. Pellat, i, 648) calls him, in error, al-Hurmuzān, but he should not be confused with the Persian general of this name [ q.v.] who was assassinated by ʿUbayd Allāh b. ʿUmar. (Ed.) Bibliography Ṭabarī, i, 1030, 1032, 1034 f. (tr. Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser, Leiden 1879, 335, 338, 340, 342) Ibn al-Wardī, Taʾrīk̲h̲, Cairo 1285, i, 117 see also the Bibl. of the article d̲h̲ū ḳār.

Ḏj̲ayb-i Humāyūn

(138 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the privy purse of the Ottoman Sultans. Under the authority of the privy secretary ( Sirr kātibi ), it provided for the immediate needs and expenses of the sovereign. Its regular revenues consisted of the tribute from Egypt (see irsāliyye ), the income from the imperial domains (see k̲h̲āṣṣ ), and the proceeds from gardens, orchards, forests etc. belonging to or attached to the imperial palaces. Irregular revenues included the fees paid by newly appointed rulers of Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania and, for a while, Ragusa, the Sultan’s share…


(119 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), the verbal noun from hallala , form II verb, with two differing etymologies and meanings. (1) From hilāl , the new moon, meaning “jubilation or excitement at seeing the new moon” [see hilāl. i; talbiya ]. (2) From the formula la ilāha illā ’llāh , the first and main element of the Islamic profession of faith or s̲h̲ahāda [ q.v.]. The verbal form is here obtained by the so-called procedure of naḥt “cutting out, carving out”. The tahīl then denotes the pronouncing, in a high and intelligible voice, of the formula in question, which implies formal and basic recognition of the divine unity. (Ed.…


(230 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lit. “The act of praising”, a minor genre of mediaeval Arabic literature which consisted of statements praising the virtues of a particular work, some composed after the death of the author of the work in question but probably for the most part composed at the time of the work’s appearance with the aim of giving it a puff and thus advertising it; such statements must have been solicited by the author from obliging friends and colleagues, the more eminent the better. F. Rosenthal (see below) has felicitously compared them to modern ¶ “blurbs” of publishers to…

Isḥāḳ Sükūtī

(251 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a Young Turk leader, was born in 1868, probably of Kurdish extraction. As a student at the Military Médical School in Istanbul, he was in May 1889 one of the original group of founders of the Secret Committee, which eventually developed into the Committee of Union and Progress [see ittiḥād we-teraḳḳī d̲j̲emʿiyeti ]. Later, in 1895, he was exiled to Rhodes but managed to escape and went to Paris, where he associated with the Young Turk émigrés. In 1897, with others, he founded the anti-government journal Osmanli ( ʿUt̲h̲mānli̊ ), which was published in Geneva. …


(143 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in Algeria, founded in 296/908 at 8 km/5 miles to the south-west of Ward̲j̲ilān (Ouargla) in the territory of the confederation of ḳṣūr of the Isedrāten, by the last Rustamid Imām, after the destruction of the principality of Tāhart [ q.v.] by the Fāṭimids. Its fame is linked with the history of the Ibāḍī communities of the Mag̲h̲rib. An Ibādī scholar, Abū Yaʿḳūb Yūsuf b. Ibrāhīm al-Sadrātī al-Ward̲j̲ilānī (d. 570/1174-5) compiled there the musnad of al-Rabīʿ b. Ḥabīb, based essentially on the tradition of Abū ʿUbayda (ed. Masḳaṭ 1325/1908 under the title of al-D̲j̲āmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ


(63 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “the act of bowing, bending”, a sequence of utterances and actions performed by the Muslim believer as part of the act of worship or ṣalāt , involving utterance of the takbīr and Fātiḥa , then the bending of the body from an upright position ( rukūʿ ) and then two prostrations ( sud̲j̲ūd ). See further ṣalāt . (Ed.)

Ṣadr al-Dīn ʿAynī

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Russian form Sadriddin Ayni , one of the leading figures in the 20th century cultural life of Central Asia and in Tad̲j̲ik literature (1878-1954). He began as a representative of the reform movement amongst the Muslims of Imperial Russia, that of the Ḏj̲adīdīds [see d̲j̲adīd ]. A formal education at the traditional madrasa s of Buk̲h̲ārā left him intellectually unsatisfied. In the early part of his career he was a talented poet in both Tad̲j̲ik and Uzbek, but after 1905 he became increasingly involved in the social and educa…


(244 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a branch of the Ṣūfī order of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya [q. v.], which originated in southern Morocco, at the zāwiya of Tāmgrūt [ q.v.], which had been founded in 983/1575 by a member of a family of marabouts. The order owes its name to the Ibn Nāṣir family [ q.v. in Suppl.], who headed the zāwiya from the time of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Maḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn b. Nāṣir b. ʿAmr b. ʿUt̲h̲mān (1015-85/1603-74), the founder (1070/1660), onwards. It was however his son Aḥmad b. Maḥammad (1057-1129/1647-1717) who was responsible for organising the order. (Ed.) Bibliography To the …


(220 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of the crags west of Medina, occasionally mentioned in connection with the mountain T̲h̲abīr ( Sīrat al-Ḥabas̲h̲a , 86). Lying behind Yanbuʿ, between the regions of Madyan [see madyan s̲h̲uʿayb ] and Mecca, they were known to Ptolemy (Sprenger, Die alte Geographie , nos. 28, 30) and are mentioned by Ibn Isḥāḳ ( The life of Muhammad , tr. 413, 542). Al-Hamad̲h̲ānī quotes a tradition, according to which the Prophet said: “May God be satisfied ( raḍiya ) with it (Raḍwā)!” Abū Karib, leader of the Kuraybiyya [ q.v.], a sub-sect of the Kaysāniyya, is said to have believed that M…

Fed̲j̲r-i Ātī

(48 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the coming dawn, a Turkish literary group active in the period following the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, and associated with the review T̲h̲erwet-i Fünūn [ q.v.], where its initial manifesto was published. See further turks, ¶ literature, and the articles on the individual authors. (Ed.)


(581 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Fāris (1875?-1962) a Syrian politician, a Christian, who played a very important role over a period of almost half a century. Born in a Lebanese village on the slopes of Mount Hermon, he studied at Ṣaydā then at the school in Beirut which was later to become the American University, while also working as a teacher. When family affairs took him to Damascus in 1899, he took up residence in the Syrian capital, learned Turkish and French and was employed as an interpreter in t…


(218 words)

Author(s): Ed.
“the two sūras of taking refuge [from evil]”, the name given to the two last sūras (CXIII and CXIV) of the Ḳurʾān, because they both begin with the words ḳul : aʿūd̲h̲u bi-rabbī . . . min . . . , “Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of. . . against . . . “, and are pronounced as prayers intended to dispel the evils engendered by the devil, evil spirits, the practice of magic, etc. The plural al-muʿawwid̲h̲āt is also found equally applied to these two sūras and to ¶ the preceding one, set forth in the form of a credo; this plural appears especially in al-Buk̲h̲ārī ( daʿawāt , bāb 12) in re…


(354 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a dish of meat cooked in sour milk, sometimes with fresh milk added, and with spices thrown in to enhance the flavour. This dish, which Abū Hurayra [ q.v.] is said to have particularly appreciated (see al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , viii, 403 = § 3562, where a piece of poetry in praise of maḍīra is cited), must have been quite well sought-after in mediaeval times (al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, however, does not cite it in his K. al-Buk̲h̲alā ’; see nevertheless al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Laṭāʾif , 12, tr. C. E. Bosworth, 46). Its principal claim to fame comes from al-Hamad̲h̲ānī’s al-Maḳāma al-maḍīriyya


(284 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, conventionally Taroudant, a town in the Sūs region of southern Morocco situated in lat. 30° 31′ N., long. 8° 55′ W. at an altitude of 250 m/820 feet. It lies 4 km/2½ miles from ¶ the right bank of the Wādr Sūs and some 83 km/51 miles from Āgādīr [ q.v.] and the Adantic coast. The old town is enclosed by a lengthy, high, early 18th-century crenellated wall with five gates. Tārūdānt was an important town in mediaeval Islamic times. It formed part of the Almoravid empire from 421/1030 onwards, but a century later was conquered by the Almohads. It was at Tārūdānt that…

Leo Africanus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name by which the author of the Descrittione dell’ Africa is generally known, who was in fact originally called al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad al-Wazzān al-Zayyātī (or al-Fāsī). He was born in Granada between 894 and 901/1489 and 1495 into a family which had to emigrate to Morocco after that city’s fall [see g̲h̲arnāṭa ], and was brought up in Fās, where he received a good education and very soon entered the service of the administration there. Whilst still a student, he was employed for two years in the mental hospital, which he describes in detail ( Description , tr. Epaulard, i, 188 [see bīmāristān…


(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a city of the Pegu district of Burma and the country’s capital, situated on the Rangoon (Hlaing) River (lat. 16° 47′ N., 96° 10′ E.). It was developed as a port in the mid-18th century by the founder of the last dynasty of Burmese kings, with a British trading factory soon established there and with flourishing groups of Parsee, Armenian and Muslim merchants. In 1852, during the Second Anglo-Burmese War, it passed definitively under British ¶ control, and Rangoon became a more modern city, and also, through immigration, largely Indian in composition. These last includ…


(555 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Bag̲h̲būr , title of the Emperor of China in the Muslim sources. The Sanskrit * bhagaputra and the Old Iranian * bag̲h̲aput̲h̲ra , with which attempts have been made to connect this compound, are not attested, but a form bg̲h̲pwhr (= * bag̲h̲puhr ), signifying etymologically “son of God”, is attested in Parthian Pahlavī to designate Jesus, whence Sogdian bag̲h̲pūr , Arabicized as bag̲h̲būr and fag̲h̲fūr ; these forms were felt by the Arab authors as the translation of the Chinese T’ien tzŭ “son of heaven” (cf. Relation de la Chine et de l’Inde , ed. and tr. J. Sau…


(272 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “the fact of being pleased or contented; contentment, approval” (see Lane, 1100), a term found in Ṣūfī mysticism and also in early Islamic history. 1. In mystical vocabulary. In the Ḳurʾān, the root raḍiya and its derivatives occur frequently in the general sense of “to be content”, with nominal forms like riḍwān “God’s grace, acceptance of man’s submission” (e.g. III, 156/61, 168/174; IV, 13/12; IX, 73/72; LVII, 20, 27), although the actual form riḍā does not occur. In the writings of the proto-Ṣūfī al-Ḥasan al-Baṣrī [ q.v.], it is a moral state, contentment with t…

al-Ḥaddād, al-Ṭāhir

(589 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nationalist and reformist Tunisian writer, considered as the pioneer of the movement for feminine liberation in his country. Born in Tunis ca. 1899 into a family of modest status originally from the Ḥāma of Gabès, he studied at the Zaytūna [ q.v.] from 1911 to 1920 and gained the taṭwīʿ (corresponding to the diploma for completing secondary education). He then took part in the trade union movement and was put in charge of propaganda in an organisation founded in 1924, the D̲j̲āmiʿat ʿumūm al-ʿamala al-tūnisiyya , ¶ whose chief promoters were hunted down and banished in 1925. His…

Ḥareket Ordusu

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally “action army”, the name usually given to the striking force sent from Salonica on 17 April 1909, under the command of Maḥmūd S̲h̲ewket Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], to quell the counter-revolutionary mutiny in the First Army Corps in Istanbul. The striking force also known as the Army of Deliverance, reached the capital on 23 April (n.s.) ¶ and, after some clashes with the mutineers, occupied the city on the following day. (Ed.) Bibliography B. Lewis, The emergence of modern Turkey 3, London 1965, 212-3. See further ḥusayn ḥilmī pas̲h̲a and ittiḥād we teraḳḳī.


(78 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), literally “lad of the interior”, i.e. “page of the inner service ( Enderūn [ q.v.])”, Ottoman term for those boys and youths, at first slaves, recruits through the devs̲h̲irme [ q.v.], and occasionally hostages, later (from the 11th/17th century) also free-born Muslims, who were selected for training in the palaces of Edirne and Istanbul in order to occupy the higher executive offices of the state. For details, see g̲h̲ulām , iv; ḳapi̊-ḳulu ; sarāy-i hümāyūn . (Ed.)


(119 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a term employed in Algerian Arabic (cf. βαύκαλις) to denote a two-handled pottery vase used by women in the course of the divinatory practices to which it gave its name. The operation consisted, basically, of the woman who officiated improvising, after an invocation, a short poem which was also called būḳāla and from which portents were drawn. These practices, which seem to have enjoyed a certain vogue during the period when piracy was at its height (women wanted to have news of their men who were at sea), developed into …

S̲h̲ehir Ketk̲h̲üdāsi̊

(119 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), an official of the pre-modern Ottoman empire, who had financial and administrative duties. His prime function was to collect the specified taxation from a town or its quarters (a function thus corresponding to that of the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , al-balad in Egypt), whereas the aʿyān [ q.v.] acquired tax-farming rights in the rural areas of the provinces. As with the aʿyān, the office of s̲h̲ehir ketk̲h̲üdāsi̊ tended to become hereditary; and there was, obviously, much scope in it for oppression of the taxpayers. Having lasted from the time of…

Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-Aḥdab

(330 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥanafī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Lebanon (born at Tripoli in 1243/1827, died at Beirut on 22 Rad̲j̲ab 1308/3 March 1891), who is a distinguished representative of Arabic culture in the 19th century. After following the traditional studies, he became a teacher (1264-8/1848-52), then went to Istanbul (where he addressed a long panegyric to the sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd), was for several years adviser to Saʿīd D̲j̲unbulāṭ and tutor to his children, and finally became a magistrate ¶ in Beirut in 1276/1859. A collaborator in the revue T̲h̲amarāt al-funūn and an important fi…


(133 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. asīd b. abiʾl-ʿīṣ b. umayya al-umawī , a Companion of the Prophet, who was converted on the day of the capture of Mecca; shortly afterwards, during the battle of Ḥunayn (8/629), he was appointed governor of Mecca by Muḥammad, and continued to hold this post under Abū Bakr. He agreed to marry Ḏj̲uwayriya bint Abī Ḏj̲ahl in order to prevent ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib from taking a second wife in addition to Fāṭima. The date of his death varies between 12 and 23/634-44. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-ʿAsḳalānī, Iṣāba, no. 5391 Muṣʿab al-Zubayrī, Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲, index Muḥammad b. Ḥabīb, Muḥabbar, i…


(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), room, apartment, used (with the definite article) especially of the room of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a where the Prophet and his two successors, Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, were buried; it is now one of the holiest places of Islam [see al-madīna ]. From the same word is also derived Ḥud̲j̲ariyya , a term used in Egypt for the slaves who were lodged in barracks near to the royal residence. Under the Fāṭimids, these slaves were organized by al-Afḍal into a sort of military bodyguard under the command of an amīr who held the title of al-Muwaffaḳ. They consisted at this period of 3000 men (see al-Maḳrīzī, Ḵh̲iṭaṭ

Ibn Kīrān

(307 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Ṭayyib b. ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd b. ʿAbd al-Salām b. Kīrān (1172-1227/1758-1812), faḳīh and littérateur of Fās. He received a traditional education from the local scholars, and himself taught rhetoric to numerous pupils, including Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ [ q.v.], Ḥamdūn, Ibn ʿAd̲j̲ība, al-Kūhin [ q.vv.] and the sultan Mawlāy Sulaymān (1205-38/1792-1823), who continually showed his high opinion of Ibn Kīrān by consulting him and by entrusting to him, with other fuḳahāʾ , the applying of his ordinances. His work is largely preserv…

Ibn Mīt̲h̲am

(480 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Ismāʿīl b. S̲h̲uʿayb b. Mīt̲h̲am (often read as al-Hayt̲h̲am) b. Yaḥyā al-Tammār (whence the less common name for him, Ibn al-Tammār ), al-Asadī (al-Ṣābūnī, according to Ibn Ḥazm, Fiṣal , iv, 181), Imāmī theologian of the 2nd/8th century. Mīt̲h̲am was a Companion of the Prophet (Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Iṣāba , no. 8472) who had adopted the cause of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and had settled at Kūfa, where his great-grandson was born at an uncertain date; nor is the date of his death known. Having left his natal town for B…


(152 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the branch of the Umayyad dynasty of Arab caliphs in early Islam, who formed the second, and most long-lasting line of this dynasty, the first line being that of Sufyānids, that of Muʿāwiya I b. Abī Sufyān b. Ḥarb [ q.v.], his son and his grandson (41-64/661-83). With the death of the child Muʿāwiya II b. Yazīd [ q.v.], the caliphate passed to Muʿāwiya I’s second cousin Marwān b. al-Ḥakam b. Abi ’l-ʿĀṣ, of the parallel branch of the Aʿyāṣ [ q.v. in Suppl.]. Marwān and his descendants now formed the Marwānid line of the Umayyads (64-132/684-750), his son and successor ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] being t…
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