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Northern America

(6,395 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[ Note: In current U.N. usage “Northern America” comprises the United States and Canada, plus the island dependencies of Bermuda (U.K.), Greenland (Den.), and St. Pierre and Miquelon (Fr.). The U.N.’s “Latin America and the Caribbean,” then, includes Mexico and all of Central America, the West Indies, and South America. In its discussion here of the United States and Canada, with brief reference also to Mexico, this article uses throughout the more common phrase “North America.”] 1. United States-Canada-Mexico Spiritual as well as geographic orientation for the histo…

Plymouth-Kolonie

(176 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Plymouth-Kolonie, eine Siedlung engl. Puritaner im Südosten von Massachusetts. Diese wanderten unter der Führung von Pfarrer J. Robinson nach ihrer Trennung von der engl. Staatskirche zunächst von Scooby, Nottinghamshire, nach Holland aus. Obwohl sie dort Glaubensfreiheit fanden, machte ihnen die Erziehung ihrer Kinder Sorge. Im September 1620 brachen daher 41 Siedler mit 61 anderen Passagieren an Bord der Mayflower nach Virginia auf. Sie landeten, von ihrem Kurs nach Norde…

Society for Ethical Culture

(171 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Society for Ethical Culture, 1876 in New York von F. Adler gegründet. Der Reformjude (Reformjudentum) Adler lehnte den traditionellen Monotheismus ab, betrachtete aber weiter die HB und die Person Jesu als Quellen der Inspiration. Unter dem Motto »deed, not cr…

Weld

(153 words)

Author(s): A. Noll, Mark
[English Version] Weld, Theodore Dwight (23.11.1803 Hampton, CT – 3.2.1895 Hyde Park, MA), einer der bedeutendsten Gegner der Sklaverei (Abolition); bekehrte sich 1826 unter dem Einfluß der Predigten von Ch.G. Finney. 1834 verließ er mit einer Gruppe von Studenten Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, und gründete Oberlin College, die erste Hochschul-Einrichtung des Landes, an der auch Frauen studieren konnten. W. war, ab Mitte der 30er Jahre des 19.Jh., einer der bekanntesten Vorkämpfer der Sklavenbefreiung i…

Lightfoot, John

(155 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Mar 29, 1602, Stoke-upon-Trent, England – Dec 6, 1675, Ely) was a noted Hebraist, educated at Cambridge. He later became influenced by Sir Rowland Cotton, a lay student of Hebrew, and began studying Semitic languages. From 1629 onwards he published a series of works using his extensive knowledge of the Talmud to elucidate the Christian scriptures. From 1…

Otterbein, Philipp Wilhelm

(170 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] ( Jun 2, 1726, Dillenburg, Prussia – Nov 17, 1813, Baltimore, MD), German Reformed minister who became a founder of the United Brethren in Christ. Otterbein went to the United States in 1752 at the invitation of the German Reformed Pietist, Michael Schlatter (1718–1790). Otterbein had been educa…

Orange Order

(268 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organization founded in 1795 in the north of Ireland and dedicated to the victory of the English Protestant king William (from Orange in Holland) over the ¶ Roman Catholic James I at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 (Ireland: II). The order arose at a time of particular tension in County Armagh when both Catholic agitation and Enlightenment thinking threatened the social and political dominance of Protestantism. It developed through the construction of lodges, the for…

Davies, Robertson

(151 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1913, Thamesville, Ontario – Feb 12, 1995, Orangeville, Ontario), Canada's leading 20th-century novelist. In his works Davies regularly employed religious symbols, disputes, traditions, and hagiography. After working in the theater and as an editor of the Examiner, published in Peterborough, ¶ Ontario, he became Master of Massey College, University of Toronto, in 1963, where he served until retirement. Davies's novels included three trilogies: …

Union Theological Seminary

(153 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (UTS). America’s first interdenominational theological seminary was founded in 1836 by “New School” Presbyterians. From 1870 to 1892 it served the Northern Presbyterian Church, but became independent once again when C.A. Briggs was expelled from the denomination for promoting higher critical views of Scripture. Notable faculty in the 19th century included the theologian Henry Boynton Smith and P. Schaff. Ties with Germany remained strong into the 20…

Wieman, Henry Nelson

(111 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1884, Rich Hill, MO – Jun 19, 1975, Grinell, IA), an early process theologian (Process theology) in liberal American Protestantism. After training for the Presbyterian ministry and study in Germany, Wieman was greatly influenced by W.E. Hocking and Ralph Barton Perry at Harvar…

Douglass, Frederick

(171 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (c. 1818, Talbot County, MD – Feb 20, 1895, Washington DC), African-American abolitionist (Slavery), was born Frederick Bailey of a slave mother and an unknown white father. After a childhood of cruel neglect, he was taken to Balti…

Prohibition, Alcohol

(270 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] Prohibition, Alcohol, a movement in the United States to ban alcoholic beverages, including beer and wine, began in the early 19th century with efforts at temperance reform associated with the revivals of the Second Great Awakening (Revival/Revival movements: II). Neal Dow, who spearheaded the drive for the first state prohibition law (Maine, 1846), called temperance (Asceticism) “Christ’s work,” which “every true soldier of the Cross” should fight. In the industrial era of the la…

Worthington, John

(108 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Feb, 1617, Manchester – buried Nov 30, 1671, Hackney), earned his M.A. from Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1632. From 1650 to 1660 he served as master of Jesus College, Cambridge, but then was replaced at the Restoration of the English monarchy. His liberal Christian spirit led him to stress the experience of practical godliness. He edited the works of the leading Cambridge Platonist, J. Mede, provided the first widely used English translation of Thomas à Kempis’s Imitation of Christ, and published several books, including The Great Duty of Self-resignation to …

Coffin, Henry Sloane

(178 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jan 5, 1877, New York – Nov 25, 1954, Lakeville, CT) was a leading Protestant educator and ecumenicist in the USA during the first half of the 20th century. After an education at Yale, Edinburgh, Marburg, and at Union Theological Seminary (NY), Coffin became a Presbyterian minister in New York. Soon he added duties as a professor at Union, where he became the president in 1926 (until 1945). Coffin was an early advocate of the Social Gospe…

Aberhart, William

(96 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Dec 30, 1878, Kippen, Ontario – May 23, 1943, Vancouver), fundamentalist minister, radio preacher, and politician. Having established a reputation in Calgary, Alberta, as a representative of Darbyite evangelical theology (Plymouth Brethren), he shifted to politics during the depression of the 1930s. He supported the “social credit” program of Clifford Hugh Douglas (1879–1952) as a means of redistributing wealth. As leader of the Social Credit Party, Aberhart was twice elected (1935, 1940) prime minister of the province of Alberta. Mark A. Noll Bibliography D.R.…

Reconstructionism

(654 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] I. Judaism Reconstructionist Judaism is the most recent major school of modern Judaism (III) and the only one born ¶ in America. It was founded by the rabbi M.M. Kaplan, who defined Judaism as a “civilization” embracing not just religion but also areas of life like art and music. The movement began as an intellectual tendency in the progressive wing of Conservative Judaism. Only gradually was it able to establish an autonomous organizational structure and independent institutions. The opening of the…

Mountain, Jacob

(166 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Dec 1, 1749, Thwaite All Souls, Suffolk, England – Jun 16, 1825, Quebec, Canada), founder of the Anglican Church in what is now Quebec and Ontario, Canada. After education at Cambridge and service in several Anglican posts, Mountain was appointed on Jun 28, 1793, as the first Anglican bishop of Quebec. Although Quebec was inhabited mostly by French-speaking Roman Catholics, whom Britain had conquered in the French and Indian War ¶ (1754–1763), the British were eager to see a strong Protestant church develop. Mountain, whose huge see stretched also i…

Southcott, Johanna

(177 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (April 1750 [baptized Jun 6, 1750, Devonshire] – Dec 27, 1814, London), a self-described prophet, gathered a considerable following in the early 19th century. Coming from a farming family, in 1792 she joined the Methodists, but two years later broke with them after she began to issue prophecies. Her first tract, “The Strange Effects of Faith” (1801), described her expectation of a speedy end of the age and her own role in the Last Days, influenced by Richard Brothers (1757–1824), …

Wise, Isaac Mayer

(92 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Mar 29, 1819, Steingrub, Bohemia – Mar 26, 1900, Cincinnati, OH), early leader of American Reform Judaism, migrated to America after talmudic study in Bohemia and Austria. Wise eventually settled in Cincinnati where, after constant effort, he was instrumental in founding the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (1873), Hebrew Union College (1875), and the Central Conference of American Rabbis (1889). Wise’s adaptation of Judaism to American freedoms led to opposition from Orthodox Jewish leaders. Mark A. Noll Bibliography S.D. Temkin, Isaac Mayer Wise: Sha…

Robinson, Edward

(180 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1794, Southington, CT – Jan 27, 1863, New York City), was one of the most influential American biblical scholars of his era. After graduating from Hamilton College in 1816 Robinson became instructor of Hebrew at Andover Seminary from 1823 to 1826, where he was profoundly influenced by Moses Stuart’s appropriation of German philology and criticism. Robinson studied in Germany from 1826 to 1830 and then became professor of biblical literature at Andover where, in 1831, he f…

Dorsey, Thomas Andrew

(168 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jul 1, 1899, Villa Rica, GA – Jan 23, 1993, Chicago, IL) was the pioneer of African-American “gospel” music, raised by a Baptist minister father and a piano-playing mother. He began playing the blues in Atlanta in 1910 and continued after moving to Chicago in 1916. In the early 1920s he experienced a religious conversion, after which he turned to writing gospel songs, but while retaining features of the Blues. Traditionalists resisted this combination, and Dorsey was forced to peddle his own music. Soon his ¶ songs became popular. Memorable titles include “Preciou…

Congregational Christian Churches

(521 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] When Congregationalists merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Church to form a new denomination, the United Church of Christ, in 1957, they were the major representatives in the USA of historic Anglo-American Congregationalism. These churches were descendents of separatist movements that had begun among English Protestants during the 2nd half of the 16th century. A pamphlet published in 1582 by R. Browne, A Treatise of Reformation without Tarrying for Any, proclaimed principles that would define the movement: Christ is the sole head of th…

Tindley, Charles Albert

(176 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] ( Jul 7, 1856, Berlin, MD – Jul 29, 1933, Philadelphia, PA), prominent preacher and author of gospel hymns (Gospel music), was born to former slave parents and began early to prepare for the Methodist ministry. In 1900 he became the pastor of Bainbridge Street Methodist Church in Philadelphia, which soon became a center of the city’s black religious life. In 1901 Tindley began publishing “Songs of Paradise,” gospel hymns marked by clear melodies, simply harmony, and the chorus-ref…

Brébeuf, Jean de (Saint)

(169 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Mar 25, 1593, Condé-sur-Vire, France – Mar 16, 1649, Saint-Ignace, New France, Canada), Jesuit missionary. Brébeuf came to New France in 1625 and almost immediately attempted to evangelize among the Huron Indians. At this time the Huron society was profoundly shaken by disease, contact with Europeans, and warfare with Iroquoian native America…

Bourget, Ignace

(148 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 30, 1799, Saint-Joseph, Canada – Jun 8, 1885, Sault-au-Récollet, Quebec), second Roman Catholic bishop of Montreal. When Bourget became bishop of Montreal in 1840, he had already established himself as an active diocesan administrator, tireless recruiter of nuns, brothers, and priests from Europe. As bishop he founded institutes of charit…

Slessor, Mary

(158 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1848, Aberdeen, Scotland – Jan 13, 1915, Use, Nigeria), pioneer Scottish missionary to West Africa. Born into a working-class family, from an early age she participated in church work and youth outreach. After petitioning mission agencies, she was finally appointed a teacher to Calabar, Nigeria, by the United Presbyterian Church Mission Committee. In 1888 she was dispatched to live among the Okoyong, where she went barefoot, dressed in nearly native garb, and maintained a …

Society for Ethical Culture

(166 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] was founded in New York in 1876 by F. Adler. Raised a Reform Jew (Reform Judaism), Adler came to reject traditional notions of monotheism, though he continued to look at the Hebrew Scriptures and the person of Jesus for inspiration. Adhering to the slogan, “deed not creed,” Adler encouraged the efforts of individuals rather than formal institutions and ritualized traditions. The Society for Ethical Culture with its regular Sunday services and Adler’s humanistic addresses became th…

Spencer, Herbert

(165 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Apr 27, 1820, Derby, England – Dec 8, 1903, Brighton, England), social scientist and popular writer, worked as a railway engineer and political journalist. His System of Synthetic Philosophy (1862–1896) established his reputation as a comprehensive thinker about society, education, ethics, and politics. To each of these domains he applied general evolutionary ideas. Evolution also explained the history of religions, which mirrored the social systems in which they existed, reinforced the practices of existin…

North America, Theology in

(2,153 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] Nowhere has America’s status as an intellectual colony of Europe been more evident than in its formal Christian theology. With only a few exceptions, Roman Catholic theologians in America have been mostly content to follow the guidance of Europeans. American promotion of Neo-Thomism from roughly 1870 to 1960 is the most important example of that dependence. Much the same situation has prevailed among the Orthodox, with the major difference that European influence has taken the sha…

Plymouth Colony

(158 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] was a settlement of English Puritans in the southeast corner of Massachusetts. Under the leadership of pastor J. Robinson, English separates migrated first in 1603 from Scrooby, Nottinghamshire, to Holland. Despite freedom found there, they soon became worried about the education of their children. In September 1620, 41 settlers boarded the ship Mayflower, along with 61 others, for Virginia. Blown off course to the north, they landed on Cape Cod in November. Before disembarking, t…

Consultation on Church Union

(189 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] The Consultation on Church Union emerged from a proposal in December 1960 by the American Presbyterian Eugene Carson Blake for an organic union of churches “truly catholic, truly evangelical, and truly reformed.” The Consultation was established in 1962 by representatives of four mainline Protestant denominations. After mergers and the addition of new bodies, nine churches have continued as full members: African Methodist Episcopal Church, Afric…

Rockefeller, John Davison Sr.

(128 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jul 8, 1839, Richford, NY – May 23, 1937, Ormond Beach, FL), business magnate and philanthropist, established himself by the 1870s as a leader for the new oil industry. His Standard Oil Company became the source of great personal wealth. Through his mother, Eliza Davison, Rockefeller received a strong Baptist upbringing. Throughout his life he contributed regularly to many churches and voluntary societies. Although leaders of the Social Gospel like W. Gladden urged church groups …

Jefferson, Thomas

(199 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Apr 13, 1743, Albemarle County, VA – Jul 4, 1826, Monticello, VA), was the third president of the United States and played an important role in American religious history. He was the author of Virginia's landmark “Statute for Freedom of Religion” of 1786, which set the pattern that the whole United States would follow in guaranteeing nearly complete religious liberty. Jefferson's beliefs became the subject of political controversy when his opponents in the presidential campaign o…

Seton

(110 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Seton, Elizabeth Ann Bailey (28.8.1774 New York – 4.1.1821 Emmitsburg, MD), Ordensgründerin. S. kam während einer Italienreise 1803 mit der röm.-kath. Kirche in Kontakt. Nach Tod ihres Mannes und Rückkehr in die USA 1804 trat sie am 14.3.1805 in die kath. Kirche ein. 1808 zog sie nach Maryland, eröffnete eine Mädchenschule und trat den Sisters of Charity of Saint Joseph bei, deren erste amer. Oberin sie wurde. 1863 gab es bereits 11 000 Sisters of Charity in den USA. 1975 wurde sie als erste in den USA geborene amer. Staatsbürgerin heiliggesprochen. Mark A. Noll Biblio…

Otterbein

(166 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Otterbein, Philipp Wilhelm (2.6.1726 Dillenburg, Preußen – 17.11.1813 Baltimore, MD, USA), dt. ref. Theologe und Mitbegründer der Kirche der Vereinigten Brüder in den USA. O. ging 1752 auf Einladung des ref. Pietisten Michael Schlatter (1718–1790) in die USA. O. hatte die calvinistische und pietistische Lehre an der Ref. Universität von Herborn (Reformierte Hohe Schulen in Deutschland) studiert. In Amerika engagierte er sich mit der Organisation von Gebetsversammlungen, rekrutierte…

Rowland(s)

(87 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Rowland(s), Daniel (1713 Pantybeudy, Wales – 16.10.1790 Llangeitho, ebd.), Erweckungsprediger. 1735 als Priester der walisischen Kirche ordiniert, konvertierte aber 1736 unter Einfluß von Griffith Jones aus Llanddowror. R.s Predigten als Hilfspfarrer von Llangeitho zogen sofort große Massen an. Ab 1737 gründete er örtliche Gemeinschaften nach Vorbild des Methodismus. In Verbindung mit H. Harris bereitete R. den Boden für die Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Connexion des 19.Jh. Mark A. Noll Bibliography E. Evans, D. R. and the Great Evangelical Awake…

Stiles

(88 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Stiles, Ezra (29.11.1727 North Haven, CT – 12.5.1795 New Haven, CT), kongregationalistischer Pfarrer und College Präsident, von 1755 an Pfarrer der Second Congregational Church in Newport, RI. Gegner des Sklavenhandels, beschäftigte sich mit einer Vielzahl naturwiss. und lit. Projekte. 1778 Präsident von Yale. Lebenslanger Einsatz für die Freiheit, Widerstand gegen Pläne, einen anglik. Bischof in Kolonien zu entsenden. Sagte den unabhängigen Vereinigten Staaten eine große Zukunft vorher. Mark A. Noll Bibliography E.S. Morgan, The Gentle Puritan. A …

Union Theological Seminary

(142 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] (UTS), Amerikas erstes interkonfessionelles theol. Seminar, wurde 1836 von »New School«- Presbyterianern gegründet. Von 1870–1892 diente es der Northern Presbyterian Church, wurde jedoch wieder unabhängig, als Ch.A. Briggs, Prof. für bibl. Wiss., von der Glaubensgemeinschaft ausgeschlossen wurde, weil er kritischere Betrachtungen der Bibel unterstützte. Namhafte Dozenten im 19.Jh. waren u.a. der Theologe Henry Boynton Smith und Ph. Schaff. Bis ins 20.Jh. hinein bestanden enge Ver…

Scougal

(98 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Scougal, Henry (Juni 1650 Leuchars, Schottland – 13.6.1678 Aberdeen, ebd.), seit 1673 Prof. der Theol. am King's College, Aberdeen. S. vf. »The Life of God in the Soul of Man or the Nature and Excellency of the Christian Religion« (1677), die die Notwendigkeit einer »wahren Christlichkeit« im Gegensatz zu kirchl. Formalismus betont. S. übte auf die Gebrüder Ch. und J. Wesley und andere führende Persönlichkeiten der evangelikalen Bewegung des 18.Jh. großen Einfluß aus. Mark A. Noll Bibliography The Works of the Rev. H.S., 1818 D. Butler, H.S. and the Oxford Met…

Reconstructionism

(253 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Reconstructionism, christlich. R., auch als Theonomie oder Herrschaftstheol. bekannt, entstand in den frühen 70er Jahren innerhalb konservativer Kreise des amer. Presbyterianismus (Presbyterianer). Die Grundsätze wurden erstmals 1973 von Rousas John Rushdoony (1916–2001) in den »Institutes of Biblical Law« publiziert. Weitere Führungsgestalten waren Greg L. Bahnsen (1948–1995), der 1977 »Theonomy in Christian Ethics« veröff., und Gary North, Gründer des Institute for Christian Eco…

Slessor

(146 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Slessor,  Mary (2.12.1848 Aberdeen, Schottland – 13.1.1915 Use, Nigeria), schottische Wegbereiterin der Mission in Westafrika. Aus der Arbeiterschicht stammend, nahm sie seit frühester Jugend an der Kirchen- und Jugendarbeit teil. Nach mehrjährigen Bemühungen wurde ihr schließlich vom United Presbyterian Church Mission Commitee eine Stelle als Lehrerin in Calabar, Nigeria, zugewiesen. 1888 wurde sie zu den Okoyong geschickt, wo sie barfuß ging, in nahezu einheimische Tracht geklei…

Yale, Universität

(303 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Yale, Universität, 1701 als »Collegiate School of CT« gegr. 1717 wurde sie dauerhaft nach New Haven verlegt, 1718 erhielt sie ihren Namen von Elihu Yale, einem brit. Philanthropen. Einer der ersten Absolventen (1720) und späterer Tutor war J. Edwards. Unter dem gemäßigten E. Stiles (Präsident von 1778–1795) und dem energischen T. Dwight (1795–1817) wurde Y. ein führendes Zentrum für weite Kreise der ev. Christenheit in den USA. 1822 wurde unter N.W. Taylor ein theol. Seminar (Y. …

Stone

(112 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Stone, Barton Warren (24.12.1772 nahe Port Tobacco, MD – 9.11.1844 Hannibal, MO), führende Gestalt des amer. Restoration Movement, presbyterianischer Geistlicher, der schon früh die eigene Tradition kritisierte. 1801 war S. die herausragende Persönlichkeit bei einem großen camp meeting in Cane Ridge, KY (Erweckung: II.). Als aktiver Prediger, Autor (Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery, 1804) und Hg. vertrat er ein apokalyptisches Christentum, die Ganzkörpertaufe u…

Tindley

(182 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Tindley, Charles Albert (7.7.1856 Berlin, MD – 29.7.1933 Philadelphia, PA), berühmter Prediger und Vf. von Gospel-Liedern (Gospel-Musik), wurde als Sohn ehem. Sklaven geboren; schon in jungen Jahren faßte er den Entschluß, methodistischer Pfarrer zu werden. 1900 wurde er Pfarrer an der Bainbridge Street Methodist Church in Philadelphia, die schon bald zu einem Zentrum des rel. Lebens für die schwarze Bevölkerung der Stadt wurde. Ab 1901 erschienen seine »Songs of Paradise«, kirchl.…

Spencer

(158 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Spencer, Herbert (27.4.1820 Derby, England – 8.12.1903 Brighton, ebd.), Sozialwissenschaftler und Schriftsteller, arbeitete zunächst als Eisenbahningenieur und polit. Journalist. Mit seinem »System of Synthetic Philosophy« (1862–1896) begründete er seinen Ruf als früher Sozialwissenschaftler und umfassender Denker bzgl. Gesellschaft, Erziehung, Ethik und Politik. Auf all diesen Gebieten brachte er allg. Evolutionsideen zur Anwendung. Evolution erkläre auch die Religionsgesch., die…

Southcott

(162 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Southcott, Joanna (April 1750 [getauft 6.6.] Devonshire – 27.12.1814 London), selbsternannte Prophetin, die im frühen 19.Jh. eine beträchtliche Anhängerschaft um sich sammelte. Aus einer Bauernfamilie stammend, trat sie 1792 den Methodisten bei, brach mit ihnen aber zwei Jahre später, nachdem sie begonnen hatte, Prophezeiungen zu verkünden. Ihr erster Traktat »The Strange Effects of Faith« (1801) schildert ihre Erwartung des baldigen Weltendes und ihre eigene Rolle im Endgeschehen…

Robinson

(166 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Robinson, Edward (10.4.1794 Southington, CT – 27.1.1863 New York City), seinerzeit einer der einflußreichsten amer. Bibelwissenschaftler. Nach seinem Abschluß 1816 am Hamilton College war R. von 1823–1826 Doz. für Hebr. am Andover Seminary, MS, wo er zutiefst von Moses Stuarts Anwendung der dt. Philol. und des Kritizismus beeinflußt wurde. R. studierte von 1826 bis 1830 in Deutschland, wurde anschließend in Andover Prof. für bibl. Lit. und gründete dort 1831 das Biblical Repositor…

Sheen

(165 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Sheen, Fulton John (8.5.1895 El Paso, IL – 1.12.1979 New York), im 20.Jh. lange die führende öfftl. Stimme des röm. Katholizismus in Amerika; 1919 Ordination zum Priester, danach Promotionsstudium in Louvain, Rom und Washington, DC. Sh. lehrte 1926–1950 Philos. an der Catholic University of America und war 1966–1969 Bischof von Rochester, NY. Seine öfftl. Berühmtheit begann 1930 mit seiner Tätigkeit als Radiosprecher in »Catholic Hour Broadcasts« bei Radio NBC. 1940 stand er einem …

Nordamerika, Theologie in

(2,060 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] In keinem Bereich ist der Status Amerikas als intellektuelle Kolonie Europas so offensichtlich wie in seiner offiziellen christl. Theol. Mit nur wenigen Ausnahmen waren die röm.-kath. Theologen in Amerika zufrieden damit, der Führung von Europäern zu folgen, was sich in der amer. Förderung des Neothomismus von etwa 1870 bis 1960 als wichtigstem Beispiel zeigt. Eine ähnliche Situation zeigt sich in der orth. Theol. – mit dem Unterschied, daß der eur. Einfluß in Gestalt russ. Flüch…

Rockefeller

(125 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Sr., John Davison (8.7.1839 New York – 23.5.1937 Ormond Beach, FL), Industriebaron und Philanthrop, etablierte sich in den 70er Jahren des 19.Jh. als führende Gestalt der neu entstandenen Ölindustrie. Durch seine Standard Oil Company gewann er immensen Reichtum. Durch seine Mutter Eliza Davison erhielt R. eine strenge, baptistisch geprägte Erziehung. Sein ganzes Leben lang unterstützte er viele Kirchen, Hilfsorganisationen und Stiftungen. Obwohl führende Persönlichkeiten des Social…
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