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Analysis/Synthesis

(537 words)

Author(s): Engfer, Jürgen
[German Version] “Analysis” (ἀνάλυσις, resolutio, resolution, dissection) generally designates the separation of a given into its parts, the determination of its conditions or the investigation of its consequences; “synthesis” (σύνθεσις, compositio), conversely, the connection of individual elements into a whole or the deduction of conclusions. Both terms have acquired specific meanings in mathematics, natural sciences and philosophy: In ancient geometry, analysis referred to the procedure of deriving the proof – itself synthe…

Empiricism

(863 words)

Author(s): Engfer, Jürgen | Byrne, Peter | Peters, Karl E.
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Science and Religion I. Philosophy The contrasting positions held by empiricists and rationalists (Rationalism) were originally employed in ancient medicine, and in modern philosophy until I. Kant, to identify instances of bias that were to be avoided; the concept was subsequently used in a neutral or eve…