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Divinization,

(400 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] also termed “deification” (Gk θέωσις/ théōsis) is a concept that goes back to ancient Platonic and Neoplatonic philosophy, and was adopted early in orthodox theology on the basis of Pauline (2 Cor 5:17; Gal 2:20; 3:26f.) and Johannine (John 14:23; 17:21) affirmations, and especially on the basis of 2 Pet 1:4. Divinization occupies a central place in the orthodox doctrine of redemption. It is founded on the Christ event, for in Christ, human nature is divinized by its union with the divine nature (Dam. Fid. IV 9). For this reason, the doctr…

Svetlov, Pavel Yakovlevich

(272 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Dec 1, 1861, Svyatoe Ozero, Ryazan’ Oblast – Nov 26, 1941, Irpen’), archpriest, professor of apologetics at the University of Kiev (not at a seminary). As one of the most creative theologians of the period of awakening prior to 1917 and the first among strictly academic theologians to oppose the ideas of A. Ritschl, he argued for discarding a onesidedly juridical doctrine of redemption; in later years, he sought to protect the doctrine from the opposite extreme of a purely subjec…

Lebedev, Aleksey Petrovič

(183 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (1845, Governorate of Moscow – Jul 14, 1908, Moscow), earned his Dr.theol. at the Moscow Spiritual Academy (Moscow: II) in 1879 with a dissertation on “The Ecumenical Councils of the 4th and 5th Centuries.” He was professor of the history of the Early Church at the Academy from 1874 to 1896 and accepted an appointment at the University of Moscow in 1908. Lebedev is one of the most prominent representatives of the Historical School of Russian theology (A. Gorsky). In his patristic …

Cherubim Hymn

(357 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] In the Byzantine and Armenian liturgies (Liturgy: VI), the Cherubim Hymn or Cherubikon is sung at the Great Entrance, when the eucharistic gifts are brought to the altar from the table of oblations: “We, who mystically represent the Cherubim, And chant the thrice-holy hymn to the Life-giving Trinity, Let us set aside the cares of life That we may receive the King of all, Who comes invisibly escorted by the Divine Hosts. Alleluia, alleluia, allelu…

Paroemia

(141 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Gk παροιμίαι/ paroimíai) are the Old Testament lections of the Orthodox Liturgy of the Hours (IV). While the usual Sunday Vespers does not include lections, on the eves of feasts of Christ, the Theotokos, and saints, up to three paroemia are generally read, which often interpret OT events as types of the saving events of the New Testament. On the eve of Christmas eight paroemia are read, on Epiphany 13, and on Holy Saturday 15. On feasts of the apostles, they are replaced with readings from the Apostolos. OT par­oemia are also read during morning worship (II, 7) on…

Glubokovsky, Nikolai Nikanorovich

(155 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1863, Kičmengskij Gorodok, Vologda province – Mar 18, 1937, Sofia) was professor of New Testament at St. Petersburg Spiritual Academy from 1894 to 1918, at the University of Petrograd in 1918, and at the Theological Institute there from 1919 to 1921. As professor.of New Testament in Sofia from 1923, Glubokovsky was involved in the formation of the ecumenical movement (Stockholm, 1925). His highly knowledgeable publications in the field of biblical studies, notably with reg…

Karabinov, Ivan Alekseevič

(159 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (born 1878, declared missing in the 1930s) was associate professor at the Clerical Academy of St. Petersburg from 1911 onward. As a liturgical scholar with a strict historical-critical orientation, he interpreted the early Christian Eucharist (Eucharist/Communion: III, 3) as in essence a sacrifice of prayer and praise. The Words of Institution and the epiclesis, on the other hand, he viewed as relatively late, albeit indisputably appropriate expansions of the original order. Karab…

Chrysostom Liturgy,

(216 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] since the 11/12th century, the most important order of the liturgy in Constantinople, which widely superseded the liturgy of St. Basil, which was celebrated only ten times a year, after adopting many of the latter's features. A redaction of an Antiochene precursor to the Chrysostom Liturgy, or its silent prayers, by John Chrysostom cannot be ruled out in view of numerous points of agreement with his work, though not to the extent evidenced in the Liturgy of Sa…

Gavriil

(133 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Petrov; May 18, 1730, Moscow – Jan 26, 1801, Novgorod). In 1763 Gavriil became bishop of Tver; in 1770 he became archbishop of St. Petersburg and Reval (Tallinn) and in 1775 archbishop of Novgorod and St. Petersburg. In 1783 he became metropolitan (from 1799 to 1800 of Novgorod only). Trained in the spirit of the theologian Feofan Prokopovich, he lived the life of a strictly ascetic monk. He brought Russian theology back to the sources, embodying the liturgical and ascetic experience of orthodoxy by publishing the Philocalia , translated into Chu…

Macarius of Antioch

(211 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Makarios, birth name Ioannis; born in Aleppo), Orthodox patriarch from 1641 to 1688. After the death of his wife, Macarius became priest, then bishop of Beroea (Aleppo). He was given the name Macarius in 1641 upon becoming patriarch of Antioch (with see in Damascus). He is noteworthy for his journeys to Moscow, during which he solicited financial assistance. An account of his first journey (1652–1656) through Turkey, Moldavia, Walachia, the Ukraine, and Russia was written by his …

Proskomide

(308 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] In the Orthodox Church, the proskomide (from Gk προσκομιδή, “offering”) is a ceremony preceding the Divine Liturgy (Liturgy: VI; see also Eucharist: III, 3), in which the eucharistic offerings (leavened bread made of wheat flour and wine mixed with water) are prepared. Its other name, prothesis (πρόϑεσις), reflects its connection with the Old Testament bread of the Presence. Originally the rite was performed by deacons in the skeuophylakion (sacristy); today the proskomide is performed by the priest in the sanctuary or in a s…

Petr

(173 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Petr, Metropolit (Metr.) von Kiev und der ganzen Rus', erster Metropolit von Moskau (vor 1275 Wolhynien – 21.12.1326 Moskau). 1308 sollte er auf Betreiben des Fürsten Jurij von Galicˇ in Konstantinopel zum Metr. von Galicˇ geweiht werden, wurde aber statt dessen als Metr. von Kiev eingesetzt. Sein Vorgänger Maksim hatte den Sitz des Metr. von Kiev nach Vladimir verlegt; P. begab sich indessen, um den ständigen Anfeindungen der über Vladimir gebietenden Großfürsten von Tver' auszuweichen, unt…

Icons

(1,605 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Technique and Material – III. Theological Basis – IV. History I. Terminology The word icon, from Gk εἰκών/ eikṓn (“image, likeness”), is usually associated with egg-tempera paintings on a primed wood panel, used in the cult of the Eastern Orthodox churches (i.e. the churches that have accepted the Council of Chalcedon, but also a few pre-Chalcedonian churches such as the Coptic [Copts] and ¶ Ethiopian Orthodox Churches). Pictures are called icons only if they authentically represent a kind of sacramen…

Dmitrievsky, Aleksei Afanasevich

(138 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Mar 11, 1856, Gouvernement Astrachan' – Aug 10, 1929, Leningrad) was the most important representative of Russian critical study of the liturgy. After training and teaching in the Kazan' Spiritual Academy, he was professor of liturgics ¶ and Christian archaeology at the Spiritual Academy of Kiev (1884–1907). His life's work was devoted to the sifting and editing of Greek and Slavic manuscripts of liturgical texts, leading to the three-volume “Description of the Liturgical Manuscripts Preserved in the Libraries of the Orthodox East” ( Opisanie liturgičes kich …

Panichida

(149 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] The word panichida is based on the Greek παννυχίς/ pannychís (“all night [ sc. service]”); in the Russo-Slavic church, it refers to what the Greek church calls a parastas (from παράστασις/ parastasis), a memorial service. It is modeled on the structure of Matins (Orthros: Worship: II, 7). Very popular with Orthodox churchgoers, today it is a comparatively short (and often further abbreviated) memorial service for the liturgical commemoration of the dead (Memorials to the dead), leading up to a prayer to God for…

Svetlov

(239 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Svetlov, Pavel Jakovlevič (1.12.1861 Svjatoe Ozero, Gouvernement Rjazan' – 26.11.1941 Irpen'), Erzpriester, Prof. für Apologetik an der Universität Kiev (nicht an einer Geistl. Akademie). Als einer der kreativsten Theologen der Zeit des Aufbruchs vor 1917 trat er als erster unter streng wiss. arbeitenden Theologen, in Auseinandersetzung mit Gedanken A. Ritschls, ein für die Überwindung einseitig juridischer Konzeptionen der Erlösungslehre, die er in der Folgezeit vor dem entgegeng…

Proskomidie

(272 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] (von griech. προσκομιδη´, »Opfer«) ist eine in der orth. Kirche der Göttlichen Liturgie (Liturgie: VI.; s.a. Abendmahl: III.,3.) vorgelagerte Handlung, in der die eucharistischen Gaben (Brot aus gesäuertem Weizenmehl und mit Wasser vermischter Wein) vorbereitet werden. Ihre Bez. als Prothesis (προ´ϑεσις) deutet auf den Zusammenhang mit den atl. Schaubroten. Urspr. im Skeuophylakion von Diakonen vollzogen, wird die P. heute im Altarraum oder einer ihm zugeordneten nördlich vom Altarraum gelegenen Apsis (Prothesisraum)…

Zeon

(130 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] (griech. το` ζε´οn̆, »das Heiße, Kochende«), heißes Wasser, das in der byz. Liturgie (: VI.) dem konsekrierten Wein unmittelbar vor der Kommunion beigemischt wird, um ihn auf die Temperatur lebenspendenden Blutes zu erwärmen. Der Ritus gehört zu den wenigen, denen niemals eine praktische Notwendigkeit zugrunde lag. In Konstantinopel 582 erstmals bezeugt, war er früher schon in der syr. Kirche geübt worden. Nikolaos  Kabasilas sieht in ihm die Herabkunft des Hl. Geistes auf die Kirc…

Rubljov

(238 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Rubljov, Andrej (um 1360 – vor 1427 Moskau), Heiliger der Russ. Orth. Kirche, größter russ. Ikonenmaler (Ikone/Ikonenmalerei, s. dort Abb.3), Mönch des Moskauer Andronikov-Klosters. R. war 1405 beteiligt an der Ausmalung der Verkündigungs-Kathedrale des Moskauer Kreml' und deren Ikonostase, 1408 der Freskierung der Kathedrale von Vladimir an der Kljazma und der Gestaltung ihrer Ikonostase sowie des Andronikov-Klosters in Moskau. Die Synode »Stoglav« von 1551 bestimmte, Ikonen der …

Parömien

(116 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] . Als P. (griech. παροιμι´αι/paroimi´ai, »Sprüche«) bez. werden die atl. Lesungen des orth. Stundengebetes (: IV.). Während die übliche Sonntagsvesper keine Schriftlesungen enthält, werden an den Vorabenden von Christus-, Gottesmutter- und Heiligenfesten in der Regel bis zu drei P. gelesen, die oft atl. Ereignisse typologisch auf die ntl. Heilsgesch. deuten. Am Vorabend von Weihnachten werden acht, zu Epiphanias 13, am Karsamstag 15 P. gelesen. An Apostelfesten werden sie durch Apost…

Panichida

(121 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Panichida, orthodox. Das von dem griech. παn̆n̆υχι´ς/pannychi´s (»ganznächtlicher [Gottesdienst]«) gebildete Wort bez. im russ.-slaw. Bereich den im Griech. Parastas (παρα´στασις) genannten, in seiner Struktur dem Morgengottesdienst (Orthros; Gottesdienst: II.,7.) nachgebildeten, heute in der Regel vergleichsweise kurzen, oft auch noch zusätzlich gekürzten, bei den orth. Gläubigen überaus beliebten Gottesdienst zum liturgischen Totengedenken, der in der Bitte um »ewiges Gedenken« Gottes für den ode…

Vigil

(452 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Vigil, eigentlich ein Begriff der westlichen Liturgiewiss., bez. Gottesdienste in der Nacht vor großen Festen. Die häufige Erwähnung von nächtlichem Wachen und Gebet im NT (Mt 14,23; 26,41 par.; Apg 16,25; Kol 4,2 u. ö.) hat entsprechende liturgische Praktiken hervorgerufen, soweit sie sie nicht bereits selbst widerspiegelt. In altkirchl. Zeit bezeugt Tertullian u.a. die Übung gemeinsamer nächtlicher Gebetsversammlungen (Tert., Ad uxorem, II 4,2). Auch Cyprian von Karthago erwähnt das nächtliche Gebet (Cyp.dom.orat. 35). …

Theodoros

(87 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] von Andida gilt als Vf. eines Liturgiekomm., den vermutlich sein Vorgänger als Bf. von Andida, Nikolaos, vor 1067 vf. und den Th. lediglich zu Anfang des 12.Jh. überarbeitet hat. In diesem Komm. wird erstmals die Göttliche Liturgie (Gottesdienst: II.,7.) als konsequente Darstellung des Lebens Jesu von seiner Geburt bis zur Himmelfahrt ausgelegt. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliography R. Bornert, Les commentaires byzantins de la Divine Liturgie du VII e au XV e siècle, 1966 P. Plank (LThK 3 9, 2000, 1409).

Vergöttlichung

(328 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] Vergöttlichung, griech. ϑε´ωσις/théōsis, ist ein aus der antiken platonischen und neuplatonischen Philos. stammender, aufgrund von pln. (2Kor 5,17; Gal 2,20; 3,26f.) und joh. Aussagen (Joh 14,23; 17,21), v.a. aufgrund von 1Petr 1,4, früh in die orth. Theol. eingegangener Begriff, der eine zentrale Stellung in der orth. Lehre von der Erlösung einnimmt. Die V. hat ihren Grund im Christusereignis, da in Christus die menschliche Natur durch ihre Einheit mit der göttlichen Natur vergött…

Prothesisraum

(132 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] . Der P. ist die aus dem nördlichen Pastophorion der Kirchen Syriens abzuleitende nördliche Apsis eines dreiteiligen Altarraums oder eine Nische bzw. ein Tisch an der Wand des Altarraums. Hier wird die Proskomidie vollzogen. Da die Proskomidie in byz. Liturgiekommentaren als myst. Darstellung von Geburt und Kreuzesopfer Christi interpretiert wird, wird im P. häufig der Christusknabe auf dem Diskos (in Form der eucharistischen Deesis), später oft auch Christus im Garten Gethsemane dargestellt. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliography G. Babicˇ, Les discussions c…

Golubchov, Aleksandr

(96 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Nov 20, 1860, Ilinsky Pogost, Russia – Jul 4, 1911, Sergiyev Posad, Russia). Golubchov was appointed lecturer at the Moscow Theological Academy in 1887; in 1893 he became professor of Christian archaeology and liturgics. Unlike earlier Russian liturgiologists, his historical criticism also bore on the history of doctrine: he noted the diminishing role of the laity in worship (II, 7) and changes in the understanding of the liturgy's sacrificial nature. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliography Obituary: Bogoslovskii vestnik, 7–8, 1911, 1–40 K.C. Felmy, Die Deutung der …

Goar, Jacques

(164 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (1601, Paris – Sep 23, 1653, Paris). As prior of the Dominican convent on Chios (1631–1637), in close interaction with the Greeks there, he began the study of Orthodox worship that he continued in Rome through contact with L. Allatius. The Euchologion (Liturgical books) he published in 1647 relied on the textus receptus published in Venice in 1638, which Goar supplemented with excerpts from older manuscripts (including the oldest Euchologion text in the Greek ¶ codex Barberini 336, 8th cent.) and from the liturgy commentaries of important Byzantine theolo…

Nikodim (Rotov)

(207 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Boris Georgievich Rotov; Oct 15, 1929, Frolovo, Rjazan’ region – Sep 5, 1978, Rome), metropolitan. In 1949 Nikodim became a monastic priest; in 1956, head of the spiritual mission in Jerusalem; in 1960, still with the rank of archimandrite, head of the ecclesiastical foreign office of the Russian Orthodox Church; in 1960, bishop; in 1961, archbishop; in 1963, metropolitan of Jaroslavl’, then of Minsk, and finally of Leningrad (St. Petersburg) and Novgorod. His unusually fast rise…

Joseph of Volokolamsk, Saint

(151 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Ioann Sanin; 1439/ 1440, Jazvišče – 1515, Volokolamsk), Russian saint. First a monk in the monastery of St. Pafnuty in Borovsk, he founded the monastery in Volokolamsk in 1479. He consistently advocated the cenobitic (Cenobites) principle, with the idea that monastery property should be used for social and cultural activities, among others. Joseph and Nil Sorsky were not involved themselves in the bitter controversy between their followers over this principle. Joseph's emphasis o…

Communion Preparation

(189 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (in the Orthodox Church). In reference to 1 Cor 11:27–29, the Orthodox Church only allows laypersons to receive communion (Eucharist/Communion) after they have been given express pemission to do so, the latter usually (but not necessarily always) being granted in confession. In some places, a week of fasting and frequent attendance at worship are required. The minimum requirement for priests and laypersons, which may only be departed from in situ…

Prothesis Chapel

(138 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] The prothesis is the northern apse of a three-point sanctuary or a niche or table on the wall of the sanctuary. It derives architecturally from the northern pastophorium of Syrian churches. This is where the proskomide takes place. Since Byzantine liturgical commentaries interpret the proskomide as a mystical representation of Christ’s birth and sacrifice on the cross, the Christ-child is often represented on the diskos (in the form of the eucharistic deesis), in later use also Christ in the garden of Gethsemane. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliography G. Babič, “Les dis…

John of Kronštadt

(162 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (actually Ioann Ilʾič Sergiev; Oct 19, 1829, Sura – Dec 20, 1908, St. Petersburg). Already revered during his lifetime as a confessor gifted with insight and as a miracle-worker, he founded an important social and charitable ministry in Kronštadt grounded in a piety rooted in the divine liturgy (Worship: II, 7) and that led to the fostering of more frequent communion on the part of the laity. His sermons were highly regarded. The full theological value of his spiritual diary Moja žiznʾ vo Christe [My life in Christ] has still not been fully explored. His monarch…

Rublyov, Andrey (Saint)

(286 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (c. 1360 – before 1427, Moscow), saint of the Russian Orthodox Church, the greatest Russian icon painter (Icons, fig. 3), and monk of the Andronikov Monastery in Moscow. In 1405 Rublyov was involved in painting the Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Moscow Kremlin and its iconostasis. In 1408 he participated in painting the frescoes of the Cathedral of St. Vladimir on the Klyazma and designing its iconostasis, as well as the Andronikov Monastery. The “Stoglavy” council in 1551 d…

Peter, Metropolitan

(181 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] Peter, Metropolitan, metropolitan of Kiev and first metropolitan of Moscow (before 1275, Volhynia – Dec 21, 1326, Moscow). In 1308 Prince Yuri of Galicia is reported to have nominated Peter to Constantinople for appointment as metropolitan of Galicia, but he was appointed metropolitan of Kiev instead. His predecessor Maksim had transferred the seat of the metropolitanate from Kiev to Vladimir; to avoid the constant hostilities of the ruling grand dukes of Tver, Peter transferred t…

Vigil

(488 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] actually a term coined by Western liturgics for worship during the night preceding major feasts. The frequent mention of nighttime watching and prayer in the New Testament (Matt 14:23; 26:41 par.; Acts 16:25; Col 4:2 etc.) gave rise to corresponding liturgical observances, if in fact they do not themselves reflect such practice. In the Early Church, Tertullian and others attest to the practice of assembling at night for prayer (Tert. Ad uxorem II 4.2). Cyprian of Carthage mentions nighttime prayer (Cyp. Dom. orat. 35). Chapter 41 of the Traditio apostolica spea…

Theodore of Andida

(93 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] is known as the author of a commentary on the liturgy that was probably written by Nicholas, his predecessor as bishop of Andida, prior to 1067 and merely revised by Theodore in the early 12th century. It was the first commentary to interpret the Divine Liturgy (Worship: II, 7) consistently as a representation of Jesus’ life, from his birth to his ascension. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliography R. Bornert, Les commentaires byzantins de la divine liturgie du VIIe au XVe siècle, 1966 P. Plank, LThK 3 IX, 2000, 1409.

Zeon

(143 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Gk τὸ ζέον, “something hot, boiling”), hot water mixed with the consecrated wine immediately before communion in the Byzantine liturgy (VI), to warm it to the temperature of life-giving blood. The ceremony is one of the few that was never based on a practical need. First attested in Constantinople in 582, it was in use even earlier in the Syrian church. Nikolaos Kabasilas saw it as representing the descent of the Holy Spirit on the church. This interpretation (probably secondary) is based on the formula in the textus receptus of the Divine Liturgy that is recited wh…

Gorsky, Aleksandr Vasilyevich

(155 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Aug 16, 1812 Kostroma, Russia – Oct 11, 1875 Sergiyev Posa, Russia). In 1832 he became professor, in 1862 – without having taken monastic vows, as was usual at the time – rector of the Moscow Spiritual Academy, which under him blossomed and achieved highest rank among the Russian academies. Gorsky was the most important initiator of the historical school of Russian theology, which largely on the basis of his work adopted the critical methods of Western theology. His importance as…

Dmitrevsky, Ivan Ivanovich

(138 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Sep 16, 1754, Michailov – Apr 2, 1829, Rjazan'), Russian lay theologian, teacher of Hebrew and Greek, and, finally, lecturer with the rank of collegiate assessor. His most important work is the first Russian commentary on the divine liturgy (VI) on a historical-critical basis (still current at the end of the 20th cent.) with a marked, Catholic emphasis on the sacrificial character of the liturgy and a rich, always well-documented use of Western literature. The author revised the commentary a number of times, and it continues to be reprinted. Karl Christian Felmy Bibliog…

Nikolai Jarushevich

(138 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] (Boris Dorofeevich Jarushevich; Dec 31, 1891, Kovno – Dec 13, 1961, Moscow), Russian metropolitan. In 1922 Nikolai became bishop of Peterhof; in 1940, archbishop of Wolhynien and Luck; in 1941, metropolitan of Kiev; in 1944, metropolitan of Kruticy; in 1946, head of the church foreign office. Nikolai gave full support to Stalin’s foreign policy but worked domestically as an important popular preacher and defender of Orthodoxy. When support of Soviet policy under Nikita Khrushchev …

Rogation

(294 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Catholic The city church of Rome took over a pre-Christian field procession held on Apr 25 in honor of Rubigo, the feared divinity of cereal burning, probably in the 4th century; it was developed further under Gregory I. The procession ended at St. Peter’s, where the Eucharist was celebrated. This rogation was later given the name of litania maior, from the litany sung at it. It extended beyond Rome; in 470 it was mandated by Bishop Mamertus of Vienne because of the threat of a poor harvest, and rogationes or litaniae minores, prescribed for the whole of Gaul in 511, …

Synergism

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Dogmatics In general, the term synergy denotes theological conceptions that consider spiritual or ethical cooperation of the human will with divine grace a causal factor in human salvation (Pelagius/Pelagians/Semi-Pelagians). The Reformers followed Augustine of Hippo in rejecting synergism, seeing justification based solely on God’s free grace ( sola gratia) as the only foundation of salvation. Despite the 1999 Joint Declarationon the Doctrine of Justification by the Vatican and the Lutheran World Federation, it remains debatable whether an…

Memorials to the Dead

(671 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian | Hennig, Gerhard
[German Version] I. Eastern Christianity – II. Western Christianity I. Eastern Christianity The prayerful remembrance of the deceased is regarded as a central praxis pietatis in all eastern Orthodox churches of the two, three, and seven ecumenical councils. All eastern liturgies include prayers for those who have died in the faith in the anaphora, that is in a central position in the service. In the Byzantine Divine Liturgy (VI), prosphora are offered from which pieces are taken in memory of the deceased and mixed with the eucharistic gifts after Communion to s…

Totengedenken

(546 words)

Author(s): Felmy, Karl Christian | Hennig, Gerhard
[English Version] I. Osten In allen östlichen orth. Kirchen der zwei, der drei und der sieben ökum. Konzilien gilt das betende Gedächtnis der Verstorbenen als zentrale praxis pietatis. Alle östlichen Liturgien enthalten in der Anaphora, d.h. an zentraler Stelle, Bitten für die im Glauben Entschlafenen. In der byz. Göttlichen Liturgie (: VI.) werden Prosphoren dargebracht, denen Partikeln entnommen werden, die dem Gedächtnis der Verstorbenen dienen und nach der Kommunion den eucharistischen Gaben be…

Synergismus

(1,050 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian | Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] I. Dogmengeschichtlich und dogmatisch Der Begriff S. bez. allg. diejenigen theol. Konzeptionen, die in einem geistl. oder ethischen Zusammenwirken des menschlichen Willens mit der Gnade Gottes einen ursächlichen Faktor des Heilsempfangs sehen (Pelagius/Pelagianer/Semipelagianer). Die Reformatoren haben auf der Linie Augustins den S. bekämpft und die in Gottes Gnadenwahl begründete Rechtfertigung ( sola gratia) als das alleinige Fundament des Heils begriffen. Trotz der »Gemeinsamen Erklärung« zur Rechtfertigungslehre durch den Va…

Filioque

(1,342 words)

Author(s): Oberdorfer, Bernd | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Western Theology – II. Orthodox Theology – III. Present Ecumenical Discussion I. Western Theology 1. The Problem. In the churches of the West, the statement in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed that the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit: VI, 2) “proceeds from the Father” adds “and the Son” (Lat. filioque). The Orthodox churches rejected this addition (see II below). Although the Filioque clause was not directly responsi-¶ ble for the schism of 1054, it came to epitomize the alienation between the East and West. 2. History. Augustine was authoritative for t…

Epiclesis/Invocation

(1,338 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Invocation – II. Epiclesis I. Invocation In order to get into touch with a given deity, one must know the procedure whereby one gets that deity's attention, how to get to the locus of its presence, and how to invoke an epiphany or visit the image representing it. There are also forms that are not necessarily tied to the deity's local presence, such as prayer, imprecation, …

Orthodoxe Kirchen

(8,269 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter | Thöle, Reinhard | Felmy, Karl Christian
[English Version] I. Kirchengeschichtlich 1.Begriffsgeschichte Der Orthodoxiebegriff (vgl. auch Orthodoxie: I.) stammt aus dem hell. Judentum. So empfiehlt Flavius Josephus »τη`n̆ ο᾿ρϑη`n̆ δο´ξαn̆ περι` Θεου˜/tē´n orthē´n do´xan peri´ Theou´« anstelle der griech. Mythen und überliefert, daß die Essener die anderen Juden als »ε῾τερο´δοξοι/hetero´doxoi« betrachtet hätten (Flav.Jos.Apion. II 256; Bell. II 129). Dieser Sprachgebrauch griff seit dem 2.Jh. auch auf das Christentum über. Entscheidend für seine kirchl. Ausprägung wurde 843…

Mysterium/Mystery

(2,452 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Martin | Felmy, Karl Christian | Birmelé, André
[German Version] I. Catholic Theology – II. Orthodox Theology – III. Protestant Theology I. Catholic Theology The semantic field of mysterium in Catholic theology exhibits two characteristic poles; though they cannot be separated, there is some tension in their relationship. One pole is the dialectic of God's revelation and hiddenness in his action of revelation and salvation. This semantic pole has its roots in the biblical use of the term (esp. in the Pauline, deutero-Pauline, and trito-Pauline ¶ material), but it is still dominant in formal scholastic usage in the 1…

Mariology

(2,940 words)

Author(s): Beinert, Wolfgang | Felmy, Karl Christian | Birmelé, André
[German Version] I. History – II. Systematic Theology I. History The term “Mariology,” used to refer to theological interest in the Mother of Jesus Christ (Mary) − and to the systematic subdiscipline of dogmatics that developed out of this interest − first appeared in the title of the work Summa sacrae Mariologiae by Placido Nigido (Palermo 1602, 21623); the variant “Marialogy” was introduced by Vincent Contenson (see below) in 1669. Thereafter, the concept disappeared until the 19th century. The matter itself has, for christological reasons, been t…
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