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Beloved Disciple

(639 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg
[German Version] “The disciple whom Jesus loved” describes an anonymous figure in the Gospel of John (John, Gospel of); he appears along with Peter at the Last Supper (13:23), at the foot of the cross (19:26f.), and in the Easter narrative (20:2–20; 21:7, 20–23). John 21:24 says that he wrote the Gospel, thus inseparably linking him with the question of the Go…

Nazoreans, Gospel of the

(306 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg
[German Version] The Gospel of the Nazoreansis what we call the Aramaic gospel read by the Nazoreans, although the name Evangelium Nazaraeorum is first attested in the 9th century, in the work of Haymo of Auxerre (PL 116, 994B), who cites comments made by Jerome. According to Eusebius ( Hist. eccl. IV 22.8), Hegesip…


(3,183 words)

Author(s): Winter, Franz | Janowski, Bernd | Frey, Jörg | Schaede, Stephan | Pree, Helmuth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term substitution, originating in the language of law, is used primarily in Christian theology, but it is well suited for use in religious studies as well, even though so far …


(2,576 words)

Author(s): Betz, Hans Dieter | Frey, Jörg | Marquardt, Manfred | Thiede, Werner | Pierard, Richard
[German Version] I. Religious History 1. Since the dawn of time, human birth has been associated with many religious ideas, rituals, and customs, including the idea of rebirth or regeneration. As a rite of passage (Rites of passage), birth is not merely a natural process; it can repeat a previous birth, view death as a passage to new life, or distinguish within a lifetime between a corporeal and a spiritual birth, separated by a ritual death. The Greek terminology is not uniform, using ἀναγεννᾶν/ anagennán, ἀναβιοῦν/ anabioún, μεταγεννᾶν/ metagennán, πάλιν γίνεσϑαι/ pálingínesthai, an…


(343 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg
[German Version] The Nazoreans (or Nazarenes) were a 4th/5th century group of Jewish Christians (II), first mentioned by Epiphanius of Salamis ( Haer. XXIX: Ναζωραῖοι/ Nazōraíoi) and Jerome ( Nazaraei/ Nazareni) and later, independently, by Augustine of Hippo and Theodoret of Cyrrhus. The name is derived from Ναζωραῖος/ Nazōraíos, a Grecized form of Aramaic נָצְרָיָה/ nāṣrāyā, found in the New Testament as an epithet of Jesus “of Nazareth” (Matt 2:23; 26:71; etc.), with echoes of Hebrew נֵצֶר/ nēṣer (“shoot”: Isa 11:1) and נָזִיר/ nāzîr (“consecrated”: Judg 13:5, 7; 16:7; etc.; ¶ …