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Lilienthal, Max

(164 words)

Author(s): Grill, Tobias
[German Version] (Nov 6, 1814, Munich, Germany – Apr 5, 1882, Cincinnati, OH), rabbi and educator. From 1841 to 1845, Lilienthal worked for the Russian ministry of education and played a leading role in the elaboration of a plan to reform the Jewish education system in the Russian Empire. The conservative majority of the Russian Jews strongly opposed this project, which favored a secular upbringing. In 1846, he became a rabbi, and later director of a Jewish school in New York. From 1855 to 1882, L…


(6,682 words)

Author(s): Wasmuth, Jennifer | Grill, Tobias | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. General Russia (Russ. Rossiya) has been known by that name only since the early 18th century (Peter the Great). Previously the name Rus’ had been in common use; the earliest documents used it to designate both the land and its people. The origin of the term Rus’, a feminine singular noun, is disputed; etymologically it most likely derives from Finnish Ruotsi (“Sweden”). The historical and geographical heartland of Russia can be defined as the territory of the upper Dvina, the upper Volga, and the upper and middle Dnieper. The southern step…


(5,998 words)

Author(s): Wasmuth, Jennifer | Grill, Tobias | Felmy, Karl Christian | Ivanov, Vladimir
[English Version] I. Allgemeines R. (russ. Rossija) setzte sich als Bez. erst seit Beginn des 18.Jh. (Peter der Große) durch. Bis dahin war der Begriff Rus' gebräuchlich, der bereits in den ältesten Zeugnissen sowohl zur Bez. des Landes wie seiner Bewohner verwendet wurde. Der Ursprung des Begriffes »Rus'« (fem. Sg.) ist umstritten, etym. läßt er sich am wahrscheinlichsten aber auf das finnische Ruotsi (dt. »Schweden«) zurückführen. Als hist. und geographischer Kernraum R. kann das Gebiet der oberen Dvina, der oberen Wolga, und des oberen und mittleren Dnepr'…