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Anointing of the Sick

(748 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner | Ivanov, Vladimir
[German Version] I. Catholicism – II. Orthodox Church I. Catholicism The practice of NT congregations attested in Jas 5:14f., that the elders of the congregation called upon the sick in their homes in order to pray over them and anoint them with oil (Anointing) so that the prayer could unfold its power to heal the body, to lift up the soul, and, if need be, to forgive sin (Sickness and healing: …


(294 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner | Felmy, Karl Christian
[German Version] I. Catholic The city church of Rome took over a pre-Christian field procession held on Apr 25 in honor of Rubigo, the feared divinity of cereal burning, probably in the 4th century; it was developed further under Gregory I. The procession ended at St. Peter’s, where the Eucharist was celebrated. This rogation was later given the name of litania maior, from the litany sung at it. It extended beyond Rome; in 470 it was mandated by Bishop Mamertus of Vienne because of the threat of a poor harvest, and rogationes or litaniae minores, prescribed for the whole of Gaul in 511, …

Rite and Ritual

(6,139 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Stausberg, Michael | Schwemer, Daniel | Gertz, Jan Christian | Hollender, Elisabeth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The terms The terms rite and ritual are often used synonymously, both in daily speech and in the specialized language of religious studies, leading to a lack of clarity. “Rite” is etymologically related to Sanskrit ṛta, “right, order, truth, custom,” and may thus be regarded as the “smallest” building block of a ritual, which can be defined as a complex series of actions in a (logical) functional relationship. Within a three-level sequence, cult (Cult/Worship : I, 2) must also be taken into cons…


(159 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] Derived from the Latin word exsequiaes (burial), exsequia is a now rarely used technical term for the burial liturgy as defined, for the Roman Catholic Church, in the Latin Ordo exsequiarum (1969) and, in accommodation to the necessities of German-speaking areas, in the liturgical book Die kirchliche Begräbnisfeier in den katholischen Bistümern des deutschen Sprachgebietes (1973). These revised instructions honor the wish of Vatican II that the burial liturgy should “more clearly expres…

Missale Romanum

(264 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] Missale Romanum, originally a book printed in 1474 in Milan with all the texts necessary for the celebration of the mass in the Roman rite (prayers, read-¶ ings, hymns, and rubrics). After the Council of Trent, it was revised and published in 1570 by Pius V. Later, the Missale Romanum was repeatedly expanded with new texts, above all for the veneration of saints (last ed. of 1962, prohibited 1970, again permitted 2007). Its use (expanded by only a few local texts) was required by all local churches and religious orders, unless t…


(119 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] Designation of the general confession of sins derived from the first word of the Latin ( confiteri, “to confess”). The corresponding texts, which initially showed considerable variations in wording (they were not harmonized until after the Council of Trent), developed from private penitential prayers in the manner of the apologies. According to Vatican II, the confiteor represents a form of the general confession of guilt to be recited at the beginning of mass and of the ¶ compline; it is prescribed during the communion for the sick, the anointing …


(116 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] also called tumba (tomb), is a mock coffin shrouded in black cloth that was set up in the church nave in front of the sanctuary. This was done at burial masses at which the coffin containing the body could not be brought into the church. At the end of the mass, farewell was bidden to the deceased through incensing and the sprinkling of the catafalque with holy water (absolution). Since the publication of the post-Vatican II burial rite, the farewell ceremony for the deceased may only be performed in the presence of the actual body. Reiner Kaczynski Bibliography Ordo exsequiaru…

Priests, Training of

(995 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] In the West, the training of priests consisted originally in practical instruction on celebrating the liturgy; under simple conditions, the same holds true today in the Eastern churches. Soon an introduction to the Holy Scriptures and instruction in the faith were added. In the Early Church, many clergy withdrew to a monastery in preparation for priestly ministry; there they learned to lead an ascetic life (Asceticism) and memorized extensive portions of Scripture. In the Western …

Holy of Holies

(371 words)

Author(s): Utzschneider, Helmut | Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Catholic Church I. Old Testament In its broader sense, the phrase holy of holies or most holy (Heb. קדֶשׁ [ה-]קָדָשִּׁים/ qōdeš [haq]qodāšîm) designates objects or spaces associated especially closely with the cultic presence of God, such as sacrificial offerings (Lev 21:22) and cultic utensils (Exod 30:29). In its narrower sense, with the definite article, the holy of holies denotes a separate space within the sanctuary in which God may be considered present in various ways. In the tent of meeting or tabernacle, acc…

Eternal Lamp (Sanctuary Lamp)

(92 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] A lamp, fueled by oil or wax, that burns constantly near the tabernacle Tabernacle, Christian) as a sign of the presence of Christ in the eucharistic bread preserved for last rites and non-mass communion and as a reminder of the veneration owed Christ, who is believed to be present. The burning of the sanctuary lamp was first prescribed for the whole Latin Church in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum (1600) and in the Rituale Romanum (1614). Reiner Kaczynski Bibliography P. Browe, Die Verehrung der Eucharistie im Mittelalter, 1933.

Liturgical Reform

(580 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[German Version] Drawing on almost two thousand years of ecclesiastical experience, Vatican II stated clearly (SC 37) that an ecclesia semper reformanda also needs a liturgia semper reformanda. Beyond the bare essentials, the NT does not contain detailed instructions about liturgical celebration; from the outset, therefore, individuals with authority in the church have seen to the orderly conduct of worship and if necessary overseen a reform of liturgical celebration (1 Cor 11:17–34; 14:26–40; also the church orders [I, 1…

Requiem Mass

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner | Klek, Konrad
[German Version] I. Liturgy Until the liturgical reform that followed upon Vatican II, every celebration of mass for the deceased began with the Latin antiphon to the introit, Requiem aeternam, borrowed from 4 Ezra. This is why the term “requiem” came to designate any mass for the dead (also: mass for souls) that is celebrated with chant. The other special chants of the masses celebrated for the deceased were also fixed. Especially the sequence Dies irae and the offertory Domine Iesu Christe, along with other particularities (omission of Ps 43 [42] in the prayer at the foot …


(5,464 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Stausberg, Michael | Schwemer, Daniel | Gertz, Jan Christian | Hollender, Elisabeth | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich 1.?  Zum Begriff Ritus (R.) bzw. Riten und Ritual (Rl.) werden sowohl in der Alltagssprache als auch in religionswiss. Fachsprache häufig synonym verwendet, wodurch Unschärfen entstehen. R. ist etym. mit Sanskrit »ṛta«, »Recht, Ordnung, Wahrheit, Brauch«, verwandt, insofern kann der R. als »kleinster« Baustein eines Rl. angesehen werden, das man als komplexe Handlungssequenz nach einem (logischen) Funktionszusammenhang definieren kann. Innerhalb einer dr…


(128 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[English Version] Seelenmesse, nur noch selten gebrauchter Ausdruck für die für einen Verstorbenen gehaltene Meßfeier, oft im Unterschied zu dem mit (Chor-)Gesang gefeierten Seelenamt, das nach dem ersten Wort eines lat. Introitus der Begräbnismesse außerhalb der Osterzeit zumeist Requiem genannt wird. Nahezu alle Amtsgebete der Meßfeiern für Verstorbene sprechen davon, daß Gott sich des Verstorbenen, nicht allein der Seele des Verstorbenen erbarmen möge. Entsprechend dem Wunsch des Vaticanum II (…


(933 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner
[English Version] . P. bestand im Westen der Kirche urspr. wie in einfachen Verhältnissen der östlichen Kirchen bis heute in einer praktischen Einübung in die Feier der Gottesdienste. Hinzu kam eine Einführung in die Hl. Schrift und in den Glauben. Manche Prediger der Alten Kirche zogen sich zur Vorbereitung auf den priesterlichen Dienst in ein Kloster zurück, um dort ein asketisches Leben (Askese) zu führen und weite Teile der Hl. Schrift auswendig zu lernen. – Im Westen der Kirche vermittelten e…


(869 words)

Author(s): Kaczynski, Reiner | Klek, Konrad
[English Version] I. Liturgisch Mit der dem apokr. 4Esr entnommenen lat. Antiphon zum Introitus »R. aeternam« begann bis zur Liturgiereform nach dem Vaticanum II jede Meßfeier für Verstorbene. Deshalb bürgerte sich die Bez. R. für jede mit Gesang gefeierte Totenmesse (auch: Seelenmesse) ein. Auch die übrigen Eigengesänge der Meßfeiern für Verstorbene waren unveränderlich. V.a. die Sequenz »Dies irae« und das Offertorium »Domine Iesu Christe« gaben, zus. mit anderen Besonderheiten – es entfielen Ps …