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Homiletics

(2,321 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Martin | Nicol, Martin | Kuyt, Annelies
[German Version] I. History – II. Catholic and Protestant Preaching Today – III. Medieval and Modern Judaism I. History Preaching preceded its theory, homiletics. The first attempts to frame a theory of preaching were those of John Chrysostom (περὶ ἱεροσύνης/ perí hierosýnēs) and Augustine of Hippo ( Doctr. chr.), who built on con-¶ temporary rhetoric. For centuries preachers learned their art more by example than by theoretical reflection. For the Early Church, synagogue instruction (see III below), the philosophical diatribe, and the preachin…

Vocatio

(327 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[German Version] Basically synonymous with calling, vocatio has become a technical term for appointment to an ecclesiastical office. A distinction is made between vocatio interna and vocatio externa. In Roman Catholicism, vocatio interna is an inward call initiated by an act of God’s grace; it requires scrutiny and confirmation by the local ordinary to become legally effective ( CIC/1983 cc. 1025, 1029; but cf. c. 203, §1). From the Lutheran perspective, the vocatio externa is a call to an ecclesiastical ministry by representatives of the congregation obeying God’s c…

Schmalkaldic Articles

(555 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[German Version] I. Origin and Reception The life-threatening illness of M. Luther (I) in the spring of 1536 induced the elector John Frederick to ask him for a “theological testament.” To be signed by leading theologians, it was intended to prevent the doctrinal controversies within Protestantism the elector feared would break out after Luther’s death. A few years later, the urgency of such a doctrinal affirmation was heightened when Pope Paul III called for a general council in Mantua; the elector r…

Dörries

(445 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin | Mager, Inge
[German Version] 1. Bernhard (Apr 25, 1856, Medebach – Oct 13, 1934, Hannover) served as pastor in Gielde (from 1883) and in Hannover-Kleefeld (St. Peter, 1891–1923). As a preacher and author of theological works, he was an important representative of moderate liberalism. Through his sermons, composed in simple language and incorporating the concerns of daily life, he was also able to reac…

Schrempf, Christoph

(492 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[German Version] (Apr 28, 1860, Besigheim, Württemberg – Feb 13, 1944, Stuttgart). Brought up in Pietist tradition as a student, Schrempf was plunged into a crisis of faith by the biblical criticism of K.H. v. Weizsäcker. As a pastor in Leuzendorf, his scruples regarding the official creed grew so strong that in 1891, citing Matt 6:33, he replaced the Apostles’ Creed at baptism with a simple baptismal question of his own composition. When he called attention to this change during an official visit…

Steinmeyer, Franz Karl Ludwig

(183 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Martin
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1811, Beeskow, Mittelmark – Feb 5, 1900, Berlin). After studying in Berlin and serving as a preacher and teacher in Wittenberg and Kulm, Steinmeyer was appointed pastor in Nowawes in 1843. In 1854 he received his habilitation in Bonn and was appointed to a chair. From 1858 to 1887 he was professor practical theology and New Testament in Berlin, also serving as university preacher until 1870. Steinmeyer is noted primarily for his contribution to homiletics ( Homiletik, publ. posthumously in 1901). Like F.D.E. Schleiermacher, he made a clear distinct…

Absolution

(712 words)

Author(s): Root, Michael | Müller, Hans-Martin
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Practical Theology I. Dogmatics Absolution is the assurance, in the context of confession (II; III), that sins have been forgiven. The history of absolution traces back to Matt 16:19; 18:18; John 20:22f. Drawing on Thomas Aquinas ( Summa theologiae III, q. 84), the Councils of Florence ( DH, 1323) and Trent ( DH, 1673) defined absolution as the form of the sacrament of penance or repentance (IV), which has as its matter the actions of…

Schott, Heinrich August

(145 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[German Version] (May 12, 1780, Leipzig – Dec 29, 1835, Jena). After studying in Leipzig, Schott was appointed associate professor there in 1808; he served as a full professor in Wittenberg from 1809 to 1812 and in Jena after 1812. An advocate of moderate supernaturalism, he rejected I. Kant’s criticism of rhetoric, arguing that just as prose is addressed to cognition and poetry to feeling, so rhetoric is addressed to the will. Homiletics, a special kind of rhetoric, is distinguished from it by it…

Office

(9,171 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Burtchaell, James Tunstead | Lips, Hermann von | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Law – IX. Missiology I. Religious Studies Over the course of history, the word office has been used for a wide variety of functions. In every case, however, what is peculiar to the term is that it refers to an activity independent of the unique personal characteristics of the officeholder. In the context of religious studies, what first comes to mind is the office…

Hanover

(1,363 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[German Version] I. City and Territory – II. Church History – III. Regional Church ( Landeskirche) I. City and Territory The settlement “on the high bank” (Honovere) of the River Leine was incorporated into the diocese of Minden following the Saxon wars of Charlemagne and was first referred to as a city in 1150. At the time of the Reformation, Hannover (German spelling) was one of the more important cities in the principality of Calenberg ¶ and disposed of five parish churches and 14 chapels. The citizenry enforced the Reformation against the will of the council and …

Theremin, Franz

(196 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Martin
[German Version] (Mar 19, 1780, Gramzow, Uckermark – Sep 26, 1846, Berlin) studied theology in Halle and Geneva. He was appointed preacher to the French congregation in Berlin in 1810; in 1814 he was appointed court chaplain and cathedral preacher. In 1824 he was appointed chief consistorial councilor and in 1840 also professor of homiletics at Berlin. Theremin sought “through eloquence to persuade his listeners of what they should recognize as truth and obey as a moral command” (Palmer, 681). He …

Rittelmeyer, Friedrich

(292 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Martin
[German Version] (Oct 5, 1872, Dillingen/Donau – Mar 23, 1938, Hamburg), became town curate in Würzburg in 1895, pastor in Nürnberg in 1902, and in Berlin from 1916 to 1922. In 1922 he was the effective co-founder and first leader of the Christian Community ( Christengemeinschaft). As a respected preacher, Rittelmeyer advocated in Nürnberg (with C. Geyer), and, after disputes with the Bavarian church leadership (the “Nürnberg Church dispute”), in Berlin, a Christi-¶ anity responsive to free forms of being a Christian, and to modern culture, and committed to religious…

Repentance

(11,471 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Oppenheimer, Aharon | Dan, Joseph | Weder, Hans | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Examination of repentance from the perspective of religious studies must confront the problem that the term itself has no culturally neutral meaning. Many of the phenomena in other religions that Christians tend to call repentance appear in a different light when viewed in the context of different anthropological presuppositions, ¶ so that due weight must be given to the religious anthropology in question. Generally speaking, it is true to say that in almost all non-Christian religions the notion of repentance c…

Schmalkaldische Artikel

(487 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[English Version] . I.Entstehung und Rezeption. Die lebensbedrohliche Erkrankung M. Luthers (: I.) im Frühjahr 1536 bewog Kurfürst Johann Friedrich, ihn um ein »theol. Testament« zu bitten. Es sollte, von führenden Theologen unterschrieben, nach Luthers Tod zu befürchtende innerprot. Lehrstreitigkeiten verhindern. Als wenig später sich die Dringlichkeit eines solchen Lehrbekenntnisses durch die Ausschreibung eines allg. Konzils nach Mantua durch Papst Paul III. erhöhte, erneuerte der Kurfürst seine …

Schrempf

(432 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[English Version] Schrempf, Christoph (28.4.1860 Besigheim, Württemberg – 13.2.1944 Stuttgart). Der pietistisch geprägte Student geriet durch die Bibelkritik K.H.v. Weizsäckers in eine Glaubenskrise. Als Pfarrer in Leuzendorf wurden seine Gewissensbedenken gegen das formulierte Glaubensbekenntnis so stark, daß er 1891 unter Berufung auf Mt 6,33 das Apostolicum bei der Taufe durch eine einfache, selbstvf. Tauffrage ersetzte. Als er diesen Vorgang seinem Visitator anzeigte, löste er eine Untersuchung…

Rittelmeyer

(249 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[English Version] Rittelmeyer, Friedrich (5.10.1872 Dillingen/Donau – 23.3.1938 Hamburg), 1895 Stadtvikar in Würzburg, 1902 Pfarrer in Nürnberg, 1916–1922 in Berlin; 1922 maßgeblicher Mitbegründer und erster Erzoberlenker der Christengemeinschaft. Als angesehener Prediger vertrat R. in Nürnberg (mit Ch. Geyer) und nach Auseinandersetzungen mit der bayerischen Kirchenleitung (»Nürnberger Kirchenstreit«) in Berlin ein der freien Christlichkeit und modernen Bildung aufgeschlossenes, dem rel. Tiefgang …

Schott

(129 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[English Version] Schott, Heinrich August (5.12.1780 Leipzig – 29.12.1835 Jena). Studium und a.o. theol. Professur in Leipzig (1808), Ordinariat in Wittenberg (1809–1812) und Jena (ab 1812). Als Anhänger eines gemäßigten Supranaturalismus bestritt Sch. I. Kants Rhetorikkritik: Wie die Prosa sich an die Erkenntnis und die Poesie an das Gefühl wendet, so die Rhetorik an den Willen. Die Homiletik als Sonderfall der Rhetorik unterscheidet sich von ihr durch die »Richtung auf das Ewige«. Die praktische P…

Theremin

(167 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[English Version] Theremin, Franz (19.3.1780 Gramzow, Uckermark – 26.9.1846 Berlin), studierte Theol. in Halle und Genf, 1810 franz. Prediger, 1814 dt. Hof- und Domprediger, 1824 Oberkonsistorialrat, 1840 zugleich Prof. für Homiletik in Berlin. Th. suchte seine Hörer »durch Beredsamkeit zu demjenigen zu nötigen, was sie als Warheit anerkennen, als sittliches Gebot befolgen sollen« (Palmer 681). Seine syst. Rhetorik entwickelte Th. nicht als Kunst-, sondern als Tugendlehre. Wie die Staatsrede wird a…

Vokation

(294 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans Martin
[English Version] . Im Grunde gleichbedeutend mit Berufung, ist V. heute zu einem Fachausdruck für die Betrauung mit einem kirchl. Amt geworden. Dabei unterscheidet man die vocatio interna von der vocatio externa. Im röm.-kath. Bereich ist die vocatio interna ein durch Gottes gnadenhaftes Handeln ausgelöstes inneres Geschehen, das der Prüfung und Bestätigung durch den Ortsordinarius bedarf, um rechtlich wirksam zu werden (CIC/1983 cc.1025.1029, vgl. aber c.203 § 1). Nach luth. Auffassung ist die v…