1. OT The OT contains only a few late references to the kingdom of God. The terms used—Heb.
malkû, šolṭān, all meaning “kingdom,” “kingly rule,” or “empire”—show that what is meant is God’s royal rule or dominion. None of these well-attested terms, however, is primarily theological. For the most part, they refer to earthly kingdoms and empires, whether Israelite, Babylonian, or Persian. There is certainly unanimity that ¶ God gives and takes away earthly dominion (see 2 Sam. 16:8; 1 Chr. 10:14, etc.), but this conviction did not at firs…