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Paul VI, Pope

(467 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Otto
[German Version] (Giovanni B. Montini, born Sep 26, 1897, Concesio, Brescia; pope Jun 21, 1963 – Aug 6, 1978), son of a journalist who was also a delegate of the Italian Popular Party in parliament. After earning his doctorate in canon law in 1922, he studied at the Roman Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici to prepare for a career in the Vatican Secretariat of State, whose service he entered in 1924. His rise was rapid, and in 1952 he was named Pro-Secretary of State. At the same time, he served fr…

Bernhart, Joseph

(184 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Otto
[German Version] (Aug 8, 1881, Ursberg – Feb 21, 1969, Turkheim) studied philosophy and Catholic theology in Munich 1900–1904; was ordained priest in 1904; received his doctorate in theology in 1910; studied philosophy in Jena 1911–1912; secretly married Elizabeth Nieland in 1913; removed from the priesthood in 1919, he lived thenceforth from his work as a Cat…


(517 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Weiß, Otto
[German Version] 1. Luigi (baptismal name: Emanuele Nicoló; May 16, 1776, Sestri Levante – May 12, 1854, Rome), Barnabite. Lambruschini was appointed to the Curia in 1814; at the Congress of Vienna, he served as an adviser to E. Consalvi (concordats with France, Bavaria, and Naples). In 1819 be became archbishop of Genoa; from 1826 to 1830 he served as papal nuncio in Paris (opposing H. de Lamennais). In 1831 he was made Cardinal and from 1836 to 1846 served as papal secretary of state. In the 1846 …

Minocchi, Salvatore

(100 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Otto
[German Version] (Aug 26, 1869, Ortignano Raggiolo – Aug 13, 1943, Travale), exegete. From 1901, he taught Hebrew in Florence. In 1907, he received a suspensio a divinis and gave up his academic career. In 1911, he married. In the judgment of Ernesto Buonaiuti, Minocchi was the “pioneer” of Italian modernism. His magazine Studi religiosi (1901–1908) was the organ of historical-critical exegesis. In 1908, he broke with the Roman Church, whose dogma he believed to be at odds with science. Otto Weiß Bibliography A. Agnoletto, Salvatore Minocchi. Vita e opera, 1964 S. Minocchi, Memorie di u…

Reisach, Karl August, Count of

(190 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Otto
[German Version] ( Jul 6, 1800, Roth, near Nuremberg – Dec 22, 1869, Contamine-sur-Arve, Geneva Canton). After earning his Dr.iur., Reisach studied theology at the Collegium Germanicum in Rome. In 1828 he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1836 he was appointed bishop of Eichstätt, in 1841 bishop coadjutor and in 1846 archbishop of Munich and Freising. In 1855 he was named a curial cardinal. A member of several Roman congregations, in 1862 he was appointed prefect of the Congregation of Studies an…

Hébert, Marcel

(207 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Otto
[German Version] (Apr 22, 1851, Bar-le-Duc – Feb 12, 1916, Paris). After studying Catholic theology at the St. Sulpice Seminary in Paris, Hébert was ordained priest in 1876. From 1879, he taught at the École Fénelon in Paris and became its director in 1895. Dismissed from office in 1901 on account of his Souvenirs d'Assise, he left the church and began teaching at the Université Nouvelle in Brussels in 1903. In 1907, he returned to Paris. He devoted himself to social problems, the relationship between the natural sciences and the Bible, and the rel…


(1,142 words)

Author(s): Weiß, Otto
[German Version] The term Neoscholasticism appears (as Ger. Neuscholastik) after the middle of the 19th century (J. Frohschammer) as a keyword in the dispute between the Ultramontane school of thought (Ultramontanism) and German Catholic university theology; it denotes a return to the Scholasticism of the 13th century, i.e. to a theology conducted with the methods of philosophy (understood as ancilla theologiae) and based on positive revelation (V). It seems certain that Neoscholasticism originated in Italy, where church institutes in Piacenza, Naples, a…