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Succession, Apostolic

(3,002 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph | Wohlmuth, Josef | Felmy, Karl Christian | Campenhausen, Axel Frhr. v. | Neuner, Peter
[German Version] I. Terminology Especially in ecumenical discussion (Ecumene), there is a widespread assumption that the expression apostolic succession denotes a primitive and clearly defined attribute of ecclesiastical office. However, the notion that the marks of the church (Notae ecclesiae) include an unbroken chain of office holders going back to the apostles and that each of these office holders was placed in office through the laying-on of hands of another legitimate office holder appeared on the scene rel…

Apostolic Succession

(2,883 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph | Wohlmuth, Josef | Felmy, Karl C. | Campenhausen, Axel Frhr. von | Neuner, Peter
[German Version] I. Terminology Ecumenical discussion (Ecumenicalism), in particular, assumes that the term “apostolic succession” refers to an original and clearly defined characteristic of the church office. However, the notion that the notae ecclesiae indicate an unbroken chain, going back to the apostles, of officeholders who have each come into office through the laying-on of hands by another legitimate officeholder, appeared only relatively late and is not the original meaning of the underlying Greek and Latin semantic field. The Greek and Latin terms διαδοχή/ diadochḗ/…

Excommunication

(2,394 words)

Author(s): Wohlmuth, Josef | Ohme, Heinz | Link, Christoph | Oppenheimer, Aharon
[German Version] I. Catholic – II. Orthodox – III. Protestantism – IV. Judaism I. Catholic Excommunication must be defined as a privative term from communicatio and κοινωνíα/ koinōnía (cf. 1 Cor 10:16: sharing and participating in the body and blood of Jesus ¶ Christ; cf. 2 Cor 13:13: communion in the Holy Spirit). The word excommunication does not occur in the New Testament. The competence of the church to excommunicate is traced back to Matt 16:18f.…

Trent, Council of

(3,646 words)

Author(s): Wohlmuth, Josef | Prien, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] I. History, Process, Results After a long chain of preceding events (Jedin, Geschichte, vol. I, 135ff.), the Council of Trent was inaugurated on Dec 13, 1545 in the cathedral of Trent – at the time a city of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nations – in the presence of 31 bishops. Pope Paul III, who had convoked the council on Nov 19, 1544, was represented by the three legates Giovanni Maria del Monte (Julius III), Marcellus Cervini, and R. Pole. The preparations proved highly inadequate. On J…

Conciliar Theory

(1,651 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans | Wohlmuth, Josef | Birmelé, André | Becker, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Dogmatics – III. Church Law I. Church History Conciliarism (conciliar theory) is the doctrine that the general council is the highest ecclesial authority such that even the pope is subject to its supremacy. Its roots lie primarily in the discussions of medieval canon law concerning the relationship between papal immunity and responsibility. A discussion concerning the relationship of the infallibility of the church promised Peter (Matt 16:18) to …

Sukzession, apostolische

(2,752 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph | Wohlmuth, Josef | Felmy, Karl Christian | Campenhausen, Axel Frhr. v. | Neuner, Peter
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff V.a. in der ökum. Diskussion (Ökumene) wird gern vorausgesetzt, daß mit dem Stichwort a.S. ein urspr. und klar definiertes Merkmal des kirchl. Amtes bez. würde. Allerdings kommt die Vorstellung, daß zu den Kennzeichen der Kirche eine lückenlos bis auf die Apostel zurückgehende Kette von Amtsträgern gehört, die jeweils durch Handauflegung eines anderen legitimen Amtsträgers in ihr Amt gekommen sind, erst relativ spät auf und ist auch nicht die urspr. Bedeutung des zugrundeliegenden griech. und lat. Begriffsfeldes. Die Termini griech. διαδοχη´/di…

Tridentinum

(2,799 words)

Author(s): Wohlmuth, Josef | Prien, Hans-Jürgen
[English Version] I. Geschichte, Prozeß, Ergebnisse Nach einer langen Vorgesch. (Jedin, Gesch., Bd.1, 135ff.) wurde das T. am 13.12.1545 im Dom von Trient, einer damals zum Röm. Reich dt. Nation gehörenden Stadt, in Gegenwart von 31 Bischöfen eröffnet. Papst  Paul III., der das Konzil am 19.11.1544 einberufen hatte, ließ sich durch die drei Legaten Giovanni Maria del Monte (Julius III.), Marcellus Cervini und R. Pole vertreten. Die Vorbereitung war höchst mangelhaft. Am 22.1.1546 beschloß man, Fragen…