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Alī Pas̲h̲a

(8 words)

Rizwān Begowič. [See rizwān begowič.]

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(335 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Dāmād, Turkish statesman and general born at the village of Seloz, on the banks of Lake Nicæa, succeeded the Abaze Sulaimān as Siliḥdār; became the favourite of Sultan Aḥmed III, who gave him his daughter Fāṭima, then aged four years, in marriage (6 Rabīʿ I 1121 = May 16, 1709); succeeded in bringing about the dismissal from office of his enemy, ʿAlī Pās̲h̲a of Čorlū, and the appointment ¶ in his stead of the incapable Noʿmān Köprülü, afterwards of Balṭad̲j̲i Muḥammed Pas̲h̲a; the Ḳapūdān-pas̲h̲a, Ibrāhīm Ḵh̲od̲j̲a, who had been appointed Grand Wezīr, plotted to…

ʿĀlī Pas̲h̲a

(388 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Muḥammed Emīn, Turkish diplomatist and statesman, was born at Constantinople in Rabīʿ I 1230 (Feb. 1815). He was a pupil of Ras̲h̲īd Pas̲h̲a, chargé d’affaires at London (1838), ambassador (1841), president of the Tanẓīmāt (reform) Wezīr Council, Grand (1855), plenipotentiary at the Congress of Paris (1856) while the Ḵh̲aṭṭ-i humāyūn was being proclaimed (Feb. 18), the result of his efforts and those of Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a; Grand Wezīr 1857 and 1861, and also in 1867; went to Crete in person to treat with the insurgents (Oct. 4), but without success…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(1,739 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
is a name and title borne by numerous statesmen and generals of the Ottoman Empire. — 1. Vizier and general of Murād I Ḵh̲udāwendigiār, rejected the proposals of peace made by ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, prince of Ḳaramān, at the time of the advance of the Ottomans on Ḳonya, was then ordered to invade Bulgaria; he captured Tirnovo, Shumla and Nicopolis, where the Krai Sisman capitulated (791 = 1389); chosen as minister by Bāyazīd I, he aided the latter to indulge in his shameful debauches, while at the same time he introduced improvements in the administration; ¶ he obtained from the Sultan the appoin…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(642 words)

Author(s): Vollers, K.
Mubārak, officer of the Egyptian engineer corps, statesman, and man of letters, was born in 1239 (1823-1824) at New Berumbāl (Daḳahlīye, Nile Delta). Though of humble origin and of the peasant class, his industry, ambition and ability enabled him to become a pupil of different schools. It was decisive for his later career that, in 1251 (1835-1836), he went to the school of Ḳaṣr al-ʿAinī, afterwards (in 1252) to that of Abū Zaʿbal at Cairo, and that in 1260 (1844) he was sent to Paris with the “M…

Meḥmed ʿAli Pas̲h̲a

(9 words)

[see muḥammad ʿalī pas̲h̲a ].

Meḥmed ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(9 words)

[Voir Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a ].

Turg̲h̲ūd ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(7 words)

[Voir Ṭorg̲h̲ud ].

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(8 words)

[see ʿulūd̲j̲ ʿalī ].

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Riẓwān Begowič

(9 words)

[Voir Riẓwān Begowič ].

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ ʿAlī Pasha

(8 words)

[Voir ʿUlūd̲j̲ ʿAlī ].

G̲h̲āzī ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(14 words)

, see ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, i. 294b et seq. ( sub 8). ¶

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a ʿArabad̲j̲i

(221 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born at Ok̲h̲ri between 1620 and 1622, died at Rhodes 16 Shaʿbān 1104/21 April 1693. Af first imām to various eminent people, then ketk̲h̲udā , he became ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries in. 1101/1689, and later wazīr and ḳāʾim-maḳām of the imperial stirrup. Through the support of the ḳāḍil-ʿasker Yaḥyā Efendi and the Shayk̲h̲ al-Islām Abū Saʿīdzāde Feyḍ Allāh Efendi, he succeeded Köprülüzāde Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, killed at Szalankamen as Grand Vizier, on 6 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1102/30 Augu…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a ʿArabad̲j̲ī

(218 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
, grand-vizir ottoman. Né à Okhri entre 1620 et 1622, mort à Rhodes le 16 s̲h̲aʿbān 1104/21 avril 1693. D’abord imām de divers grands personnages, puis ketk̲h̲udā, il devient āghā des Janissaires en 1101/1689, puis vizir et kaʾimmaḳām (kaymakam) de l’étrier impérial. Grâce à l’appui du ḳāḍī l-ʿ asker Yaḥyā Efendi et du s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-islām Abū Saʿīd-zāde Feyẓullāh Efendi, il succède à Köprülü-zāde Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, tué à Szalankamen, dans les fonctions de grand-vizir, le 6 d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1102/30 août 1691. Peu soucieux de se mettre à la tête de …

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Čāndārli̊̊-Zāde

(427 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(d. 1407), son of Čāndārli̊ Ḵh̲alīl Ḵh̲ayr al-Dīn Pas̲h̲a, was, like his father, ḳāḍī , then ḳāḍīl-ʿasker, and finally Grand Vizier, and also combined the functions of wazīr, that is to say head of the administration and finance, and of army commander, perhaps after the death of his father in 1387. After having directed a campaign in Anatolia against the Ḳaramānid ʿAlī Bey, he conducted the skilful operations in Bulgaria which led to the capture of several fortresses (Pravad, Ti̊rnova, S̲h̲ehirköyü etc.) before the battl…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Sürmeli

(211 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born in Dimetoka, he entered the financial administration and was eventually appointed defterdār in 1688; he was dismissed the following year, but in 1103/1691 was again defterdār and wazīr . Successively governor of Cyprus and Tripoli in Syria, he became Grand Vizier on 16 Rad̲j̲ab 1105/ 13 March 1694 in the place of Bozoḳlu Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, and conducted the Hungarian campaign, during which he unsuccessfully besieged Peterwardein. Sulṭān Muṣṭafā II, on his accession, retained ʿAlī…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Semiz

(194 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born at Brazza in Herzegovina, he was carried off at an early age during a dews̲h̲irme operation to be brought up at Istanbul; in 953/1546 he became ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, and later beylerbeyi of Rumelia. Appointed governor of Egypt in 1549, he took part in Sulaymān I’s Persian campaign, and succeeded Rustam Pas̲h̲a as Grand Vizier in Shawwāl 968/July 1561, a post which he held until his death in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 972/June 1565. Immediately after his appointment, he negotiated with the …

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Sürmeli

(212 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(1645-1695), grandvizir ottoman. Originaire de Dimetoka, il entre dans l’administration des finances et finit par être nommé defterdār en 1688; il est destitué l’année suivante, mais est de nouveau defterdār et vizir en 1691 (1103). Par la suite gouverneur de Chypre, puis de Tripoli de Syrie, il devient grand-vizir le 16 rad̲j̲ab 1105/13 mars 1694 à la place de Bōzōḳlū Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a, et dirige la campagne de Hongrie, au cours de laquelle il assiège en vain Peterwardein. Le sultan Muṣṭafā II, à son avènement, maintient Alī…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Semiz

(192 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(m. 1565), grand-vizir ottoman. Né à Brazza, en Herzégovine, et enlevé très jeune dans une opération de devşirme pour être élevé à I̊stanbul, il devient en 1546 (953) āg̲h̲ā des Janissaires, puis beylerbeyi de Roumélie. Nommé gouverneur d’Égypte en 1549, il participe à la campagne d’Iran avec Sulaymān Ier et succède à Rustem Pas̲h̲a comme grand-vizir en s̲h̲awwāl 968/ juillet 1561, poste qu’il occupe jusqu’à sa mort en d̲h̲ū l-ḳaʿda 972/juin 1565. Dès sa nomination, il négocie avec l’ambassadeur autrichien Busbecq la paix qui est finalement signée à Prague le 1er juin 1562. Mais la p…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Čāndārli̊zāde

(440 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(m. 1407), fils deČāndārli̊ Ḵh̲alīl Ḵh̲ayral-dīn Pas̲h̲a, fut, comme son père, ḳāḍī, puis ḳāḍī l-ʿ asker, enfin grand-vizir, et cumula de même les fonctions de vizir, c’est-à-dire chef de l’administration et des finances, et de commandant de l’armée, peut-être dès la mort de son père en 1387. Après avoir dirigé en Anatolie une expédition contre le Ḳaramanide ʿAlī Bey, il conduit avec habileté en Bulgarie des opérations qui amènent la prise de plusieurs forteresses (Pravad, Ti̊rnova, Ṣehirköyü, etc.), avant la …

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a K̲h̲ādim

(302 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier. At first aḳ ag̲h̲asi̊ , then beylerbeyi of Ḳaramān and subsequently of Rumelia, he distinguished himself in the course of a campaign in Wallachia (1485); wazīr in 1486, he defeated the Mamlūks of Egypt at the battle of Āg̲h̲āčāyi̊r in Cilicia (1942), took the fortresses of Coron and Modon (1500), and. was appointed Grand Vizier the following year in succession to Mesīḥ Pas̲h̲a. Dismissed in 1503, he again became Grand Vizier in 1506 and remained in office until his death. He strove to secure the succession of the s̲h̲āh-zāde Aḥmed, second son of Sultan Bāyazīd I…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Tepedelenli

(1,514 words)

Author(s): Bowen, H.
, governor of Yanya (Jannina). Born probably in 1744 of a family descended from a Mewlewī derwīs̲h̲ of Kütahya who migrated to Rumelia. His grandfather and father had in turn held the mutesellimlik of Tepedelen in the Epirus; but being left fatherless as a child ʿAlī was brought up by his bold and ambitious mother, a native of Konitza, in an atmosphere of constant warfare between rival chieftains of the region. After attaching himself in turn to the Warden of the Passes ( derbend bas̲h̲bug̲h̲u ) and the mutaṣarrif of Delwine (Delvino), of whom he facilitated t…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Dāmād

(513 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(1667-1716), Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born at Sölöz near Nicaea in 1079/1667, he entered the Seraglio of Ahmed II, and filled successively the posts of kātib , rikābdār , čuḳadār and silāḥdār ; he exercised great influence over Sultan Aḥmed III, who came to the throne in 1703, and who made him wazīr and gave him his daughter Fātima in marriage (Rabīʿ I 1121/May 1709); he had a hand in the appointment and dismissal of wazīrs , including Köprülü-zāde Nuʿmān Pas̲h̲a and Balṭad̲j̲i Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a. The Grand Vizier Khod̲j̲a Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a was condemned t…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a K̲h̲ādim

(283 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(m. 1511), grandvizir ottoman. D’abord āḳ āg̲h̲āsi̊, ensuite beylerbeyi de Ḳaráman, puis de Roumélie, il s’illustre au cours d’une campagne en Valachie (1485); vizir en 1486, il remporte contre les Mamelouks d’Égypte la ¶ bataille d’Āg̲h̲āčāyi̊r, en Cilicie (1492), conquiert les forteresses de Coron et de Modon (1500) et est nommé grand-vizir l’année suivante à la place de Nesīḥ Pas̲h̲a. Destitué en 1503, il redevient grandvizir en 1506 et le demeure jusqu’à sa mort. Il s’efforce d’assurer au s̲ h̲āhzāde Aḥmed, second fils du sultan Bāyazīd II, la succession de son père contre le s̲h̲āhz…

ʿĀlī Pas̲h̲a Tepedelenli

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Bowen, H.
, gouverneur de Yanya (Jannina), né probablement en 1744 d’une famille descendant d’un derwis̲h̲ de Kütāhya qui avait émigré en Roumélie. Son grand-père et son père avaient détenu tour à tour le muiesellimlik de Tepedelen en Épire; mais ʿAlī était encore enfant quand son père mourut, et il fut élevé par une mère ¶ hardie et ambitieuse, née à Konitza, dans une atmosphère de guerre constante entre des chefs rivaux de la région. Après s’être attaché tour à tour au gouverneur des Cols ( derbend bas̲h̲bug̲h̲u) et au mutaṣarri̊f de Delwine (Delvino), dont il facilita le meurtre après en …

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Dāmād

(522 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(1667-1716), grand- vizir ottoman. Né à Sölöz, près de Nicée en 1079/ 1667, il entre au Sérail sous Aḥmed II, et occupe successivement les fonctions de kātib, rikābdār, cūḳadār et silāḥdār; il exerce une profonde influence sur le sultan Aḥmed III, monté sur le trône en 1703, qui le nomme vizir et lui donne sa fille Fāṭima en mariage (rabīʿ I 1121/mai 1709); il intervient dans la désignation et la destitution des vizirs, parmi lesquels Köprülü-zāde Nuʿmān Pas̲h̲a et Bālṭad̲j̲ī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a. Le grand-vizir Ḵh̲ōd̲j̲a Ibrāhīm …

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Ḥakīm-Og̲h̲lu

(521 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
, Grand Vizier under the Ottoman sultans Maḥmūd I and ʿOt̲h̲mān III. His father, Nūḥ Efendi, the physician of Muṣṭafā II, was a Venetian renegade. ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a was born on 15 Shaʿbān 1100/4 June 1689; brought up in the seraglio, he held various administrative posts at Istanbul, and then in the provinces; in 1722 he was appointed as governor of Adana and subdued the tribes of Cilicia; in 1724 he became governor of Aleppo, and in the same year distinguished himself at the siege and capture of Tabrīz. Appointed wazīr in 1725, he was successively beylerbeyi of Anatolia, ser-ʿasker

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Güzeld̲j̲e

(259 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(“the handsome”), (d. 1620) Ottoman Grand Admiral and Grand Vizier. Born at Istanköy (Cos), he was successively bey of Damiette, and beylerbeyi of the Yaman (1602), Tunis, Morea and Cyprus. In November 1617, he succeeded Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a as ḳapudan-i̊ deryā ; in August 1618, a storm off the Dalmatian Coast caused ¶ the loss of eleven vessels of his fleet; dismissed at the accession of Muṣṭafā I, he again became ḳapudan-i̊ deryā shortly afterwards. On 16 Muḥarram 1029/23 December 1619, he succeeded Öküz Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a as Grand Vizier following intrigues among the int…

D̲j̲ānīkli Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲i ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(459 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, Ottoman soldier and founder of a Derebey [ q.v.] family. He was born in Istanbul in 1133/1720-21, the son of Aḥmed Ag̲h̲a, a ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ at the Imperial palace. As a youth he accompanied his elder brother Suleymān Pas̲h̲a to D̲j̲ānīk, where he eventually succeeded him as ruler with the title, customary among the autonomous derebeys, of muḥaṣṣil [ q.v.]. During the Russo-Turkish war of 1182/1768-1188/1774. he held a number of military commands. Serving first in Georgia, he was appointed in D̲j̲umādā II 1183/September-October 1769 to the staff …

Warwarī ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(658 words)

Author(s): Murphey, R.
, Ottoman governor and commander, d. 1058/1648. He was a native of Warwar or Varvara (lat. 43° 49′ N., long. 17° 29′ E.) in Bosnia. Details of his career in state service in the first four decades of the 17th century are provided by the Pas̲h̲a himself in his versified memoirs ( sar gud̲h̲as̲h̲t ). Some of the high points, as he relates them, include his participation in Murād IV’s campaign against Eriwan in 1045/1635 as dümdar (commander of the army’s rear flank), in which he received a cash bonus for exceptional service of four purses (160,000 aḳčes ) of silver ( Memoirs ,…

Ḏj̲ānīkli Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(441 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B.
, capitaine ottoman et fondateur d’une famille de derebeys [ q.v.]. Né à Istanbul en 1133/1720-1, il était le fils d’Aḥmad Ag̲h̲a, ḳapid̲j̲i- bas̲h̲i au palais impérial. Dans sa jeunesse, il accompagna son frère aîné Süleymān Pas̲h̲a à Ḏj̲ānīk, où il lui succéda définitivement comme maître du pays, avec le titre, habituel chez les derebeys autonomes, de muḥaṣṣil [ q.v.]. Pendant la guerre russo-turque de 1182-88/1768-74, il détint un certain nombre de commandements militaires. D’abord en service en Géorgie, il fut nommé en d̲j̲umādā II 1183/oct. 1769 à l’étatmajor du serʿasker de Mol…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Ḥakīm-og̲h̲lū

(497 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(1689-1758), grand-vizir sous les sultans ottomans Maḥmūd Ier et ʿUt̲h̲mān III. Son père, Nūḥ Efendī, médecin de Muṣṭafā II, était un Vénitien régénat. ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a naît le 15 s̲h̲aʿbān 1100/4 Juin 1689; élevé au Sérail, il occupe par la suite diverses fonctions administratives à Īstanbul, puis en province, devient gouverneur d’Adana (1722) et réduit à l’obéissance les tribus de Cilicie; gouverneur d’Alep en 1724, il s’illustre la même année au cours du siège et de la prise de Tabrīz. Nommé vizir en 1725, il est successivement beylerbeyi d’Anatolie, serasker d’Orient, gouverneur de…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Güzeld̲j̲e

(258 words)

Author(s): Mantran, R.
(le Beau), (m. 1620), grand-amiral et grand-vizir ottoman. Né à İstanköy (Cos), il fut successivement bey de Damiette, beylerbeyi du Yémen (1602), de Tunis, de Morée et de Chypre. En novembre 1617, il succède à Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a comme ḳapūdān-i̊ deryā; en août 1618, une tempête sur les côtes de Dalmatie lui vaut de perdre onze navires de la flotte qu’il commande; destitué à l’avènement de Muṣṭafā Ier, il redevient ḳapūdān-i̊ deryā peu après. Il succède le 16 muḥarram 1029/23 décembre 1619, à Öküz Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a comme grand-vizir, à la suite d’intrigues auprès du sul…

Warwarī ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(722 words)

Author(s): Murphey, R.
, gouverneur et officier ottoman, m. en 1058/1648. Il naquit à Warwar ou Varvara (43° 49’ N., 17° 29’ E.) en Bosnie. Les détails de sa carrière au service de l’État dans les quarante premières années du XVIIe s. sont fournis par le Pas̲h̲a lui-même dans ses Mémoires en vers ( sar gud̲h̲as̲h̲t) Certains des points importants, qu’il raconte, font état de sa participation à la campagne de Murād IV contre Erivan en 1045/1635 en tant que dümdar (commandant l’arrière garde), pour laquelle il obtint une prime en espèces, pour service rendu exceptionnel, de quatre bourses d’argent (160.000 aḳčes) ( Mé…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Čorlulu

(537 words)

Author(s): Bowen, H.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born about 1670, the son of a peasant or barber of Čorlu, he was adopted for his good looks and intelligence by a courtier of Aḥmed II and placed as a probationer in the G̲h̲alaṭa Sarāyi̊, whence he entered the Palace service, rising by way of the seferli oda to be silāḥdār under Muṣṭafā II. As silāḥdār he greatly enhanced the importance of his office, whose occupant thenceforward replaced the Dār al-Saʿāde Ag̲h̲asi̊ as intermediary between the sultan and the Grand Vizier and the Bāb al-Saʿāde Ag̲h̲asi̊ as controller of the ič-og̲h̲lans , and composed a niẓām-nāme

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Čorlulu

(509 words)

Author(s): Bowen, H.
, grand-vizir ottoman. Né, vers 1670, d’un paysan (ou barbier) de Čorlu, sa bonne mine et son intelligence le firent adopter par un courtisan d’Aḥmad II qui le plaça comme vérificateur au G̲h̲alaṭa Sarāyī; de là, il entra au service du Palais, s’élevant du grade de seferli oda à celui de silāḥdār sous Muṣṭafā II En qualité de silāḥdār, il rehaussa grandement l’importance de son office, dont le titulaire remplaça dès lors le Dār al-Saʿāde Ag̲h̲asi̊ comme intermédiaire entre le sultan et le grand-vizir, et le Bāb al-Saʿāde Ag̲h̲asi̊ comme contrôleur des ič-og̲h̲lans, et composa un niẓām-nāme…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Mubārak

(493 words)

Author(s): Vollers, K.
, Egyptian statesman and man of letters. Born in 1239/1823 in Birinbāl (Daḳahliyya province) he gained admission to the recently founded government schools of Ḳaṣr al-ʿAynī and of Abū Zaʿbal, and studied at the polytechnic ( muhandis-k̲h̲āne ) of Būlāḳ. In 1260/1844 he was sent to France as a member of the “Mission égyptienne” and was trained as an officer and military engineer. On his return to Egypt in 1266/ 1849-50, he won the favour of ʿAbbās I and began a distinguished career first in the topographical de…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Mubārak

(489 words)

Author(s): Vollers, K.
homme d’État et homme de lettres égyptien. Né en 1239/1823 à Birinbāl (province de Daḳahliyya), il fut admis dans les écoles du gouvernement récemment fondées de Ḳaṣr al-ʿAynī et d’Abū Zaʿbal et poursuivit ses études à l’école polytechnique ( muhandis k̲h̲āne) de Būlāk. En 1260/1844, il fut envoyé en France comme membre de la «Mission égyptienne» [voir Ḵh̲edīw] et reçut une formation d’officier et d’ingénieur militaire. A son retour en Égypte, en 1266/1849-50, il obtint la faveur de ʿAbbās Ier et commença une brillante carrière d’abord au département topographique du Minis…

Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(3,495 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(in European sources often Mehemed Ali or Mehemet Ali) was the well-known powerful viceroy of Egypt during the years 1805-1849 (which period comprises the entire reign of Sulṭān Maḥmūd II q. v.); and the founder of the khedivial, later royal dynasty of Egypt. Seen in the light of history his life-work fully entitles him to the epithet of “the Founder of Modern Egypt”. Muḥammad ʿAlī was born in 1769, possibly of Albanian extraction, in the town of Ḳawāla [q. v.] in Macedonia; he was engaged in the tobacco trade until he joined, as biñ bas̲h̲i in a corps of Albanian troops, the Turkish arm…

ʿĀlī Pas̲h̲a Muḥammad Amīn

(1,546 words)

Author(s): Bowen, H.
, Ottoman Grand Vizier, born in Istanbul in February 1815, his father being a shopkeeper of the Egyptian Market. At the age of fourteen he obtained his first government post in the secretariat of the Imperial dīwān and, whether because of his short stature, or of his ability, acquired the nickname ʿĀlī. In 1833, having already learnt some French, he was appointed to the translation department of the dīwān, and three years later was sent with a mission, first to Vienna, where he remained some eighteen months, and then, in 1837, to St Petersburg. On his return he was appointed Interpreter to the dī…

Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(10,069 words)

Author(s): Toledano, E.R.
(late 1760s-1849), Ottoman governor-general and effective ruler of Egypt. He was known in his time and to his Ottoman milieu as Meḥmed ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. In European sources, he was often referred to as the viceroy of Egypt or simply as the Pas̲h̲a. Assuming the title K̲h̲edive, which officially was only granted to his grandson Ismāʿīl in 1867, Muḥammad ʿAlī was Ottoman governor-general of Egypt from 1805 to 1848, when, owing to mental incapacity, the position was formally conferred on his son Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. His heirs ruled Egypt, with varying degrees of effective power, until 1952. …

ʿĀlī Pas̲h̲a Muḥammad Aml̄n

(1,576 words)

Author(s): Bowen, H.
, grandvizir ottoman, né en février 1815 à Istanbul où son père était boutiquier au marché égyptien. A l’âge de quatorze ans, il obtint son premier poste au secrétariat du Dīwān impérial et, à cause soit de sa petite taille, soit de son habileté, il reçut le surnom de ʿĀlī. En 1833, comme il avait déjà appris un peu de français, il fut nommé au département de traduction du Dīwān, puis, trois ans plus tard, envoyé en mission d’abord à Vienne, où il séjourna quelque dix-huit mois, ensuite à St Pétersbourg en 1837. A son retour, il fut nommé interprète du Dīwān; l’année suivante, à la nomination d…

Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(9,277 words)

Author(s): Toledano, E.R.
(1769?-1849), Meḥmed en turc, Méhémet Alī en français, «viceroi» d’Égypte. Prenant le titre de khédive qui ne fut officiellement décerné qu’à son petit-fils Ismāʿīl [ q.v.] en 1867, il occupa les fonctions de gouverneur général d’Égypte, pour le compte des Ottomans, de 1805 à 1848; à cette dernière date, du fait de son incapacité mentale, son poste fut officiellement attribué à son fils Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], et ses descendants gouvernèrent l’Égypte, avec un pouvoir effectif variable, jusqu’en 1952. La carrière de ce personnage des plus importants et des plus discutés pe…

9.10: Reign of Salim III, 1789-1807

(12,244 words)

Chapter 9. HISTORY OF TURKISH 'IRAQ The successor of 'Abdul Hamīd I in the Sultanate of Turkey was his nephew Salīm III, a son of Mustafa III, who ascended the throne on the 7th April 1789 and was deposed on the 29th May 1807. The Ottoman Empire consisted in his day of 26 Ayālats or Governments; and among these was Baghdād, whiqh included Basrah, but not Mūsal. The period was an important and even critical one in western Turkey where the Sultan endeavoured to restore the authority of the central Gover…

Pas̲h̲a

(2,828 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(t., from the Pers. pādis̲h̲āh , probably influenced by Turkish basḳaḳ ), the highest official title of honour ( ʿunwān or laḳab ) in use in Turkey until the advent of the Republic and surviving for sometime after that in certain Muslim countries originally part of the Turkish empire (Egypt, ʿIrāḳ, Syria). It was always accompanied by the proper name, like the titles of nobility in Europe, but with this difference from the latter, that it was placed after the name (like the less important titles of bey and efendi ). In addition, being neither hereditary nor givi…

Pas̲h̲a

(2,748 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(T., from the Pers. pādis̲h̲āh, probably influenced by Turkish basḳaḳ), the highest official title of honour ( ʿunwān or laḳab) in use in Turkey until quite recently and still surviving in certain Muslim countries originally parts of the Turkish empire (Egypt, ʿIrāḳ, Syria). It was always accompanied by the proper name like the titles of nobility in Europe but with this difference from the latter, that it was placed after the name (like the less important titles of bey and efendi). In addition, being neither hereditary nor giving any rank to wives, nor attached to territori…

Pas̲h̲a

(2,668 words)

Author(s): Deny, J.
(T. du P. pādis̲h̲āh avec contamination probable par le T. basḳaḳ), le plus haut des titres honorifiques ( ʿunwān ou laḳab) officiels en usage, jusqu’à l’avènement de la république en Turquie et encore survivant dans certains pays musulmans, comme le Maroc. Il accompagnait obligatoirement le nom propre, comme les titres nobiliaires de l’Occident européen, mais, à là différence de ceux-ci, il se plaçait après le nom (de même que les titres moins importants, de bey et d’ efendi). En outre, n’étant ni héréditaire, ni transmissible aux épouses, ni attaché à une possession te…

Čorlulu

(6 words)

[see ʿalī pas̲h̲a ]

Čorlulu

(6 words)

[Voir ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a ].

Tepedelen

(7 words)

[see ʿalī pas̲h̲a tepedelenli ].

Dragut

(7 words)

[see turg̲h̲ud ʿalī pas̲h̲a ].

Dragut

(7 words)

[Voir Turg̲h̲ud ʿalī Pas̲h̲a ].

Tepedelen

(7 words)

[Voir ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a Tepdelenli ].

ʿĀrifī Pas̲h̲a

(222 words)

Author(s): Giese, F.
, Turkish statesman, son of S̲h̲ekīb Pas̲h̲a, born in Constantinople in 1246 (1830-1831). He was educated privately and having acquired a knowledge of French, started on his official career in 1261 (1845); in 1263 (1847) he became first secretary of the Turkish legation in Vienna. After having been temporarily recalled to Constantinople he acted as first secretary to ʿĀlī Pas̲h̲a at the Vienna conference in 1271 (1855) and at the Paris congress in 1272 (1856). Later he was first dragoman of the …

Ḏj̲azzār-Pas̲h̲a

(461 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Aḥmed, Pas̲h̲a of ʿAkkā, a Bosnian by birth, although he is said to have belonged to Widdin or Nis̲h̲, born about 1132 = 1720, was first of all in the service of the Grand Vizier Ḥakīm-Og̲h̲lū ʿAlī-Pas̲h̲a, whom he accompanied to Egypt, when the latter was entrusted with its administration for the second time; he then made the pilgrimage to Mecca. When on his return he found ʿAlī-Pas̲h̲a, who had in the meanwhile been dismissed, no longer there, he enlisted in the Mamlūks by selling himself to “Abd Allāh-Beg, one of ʿAlī-Beg’s Mamlūks (1168= 1755). When Kās̲h̲if of the province of Buhaira…

Ziyā Pas̲h̲a

(813 words)

Author(s): Ambros, Edith G.
, Ḍiyā Pas̲h̲a , renowned Ottoman poet and essayist of the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.] era. Ziyā Pas̲h̲a’s given name was ʿAbd ül-Ḥamīd Ziyāʾ ül-Dīn. He was born in Kandilli on the Bosphorus in 1829, the son of Ferīd ül-Dīn Efendi, a native of Erzurum who worked as clerk in the Galata customs, and ʿI̊ṭi̊r K̲h̲āni̊m. After graduating from the School of Literary Education ( Mekteb-i ʿUlūm-i̊ Edebiyye ), and having learned Persian and Arabic, he worked as scribe at the Grand Vizierate ( Ṣadāret-i ʿUẓmā Mektūbī Odasi̊ ) for nine or ten years. During this period he frequente…

Ziyā Pas̲h̲a

(808 words)

Author(s): Ambros, Edith G.
, Ḍiyā Pas̲h̲a, célèbre poète et essayiste ottoman de l’époque des Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.]. Żiyā Pas̲h̲a avait reçu le nom de ʿAbd ül-Ḥamīd Żiyāʾ ül-dīn. Il naquit à Kandilli sur le Bosphore en 1829, d’un père natif d’Erzurum, Ferīd ül-dīn Efendi, qui travailla comme employé des douanes de Galata et de ʿI̊̄ṭi̊r Ḵh̲ānim. Diplômé de l’École d’Enseignement Littéraire (Mekleb-i ʿUlūm-i̊ Edebiyye), et ayant appris le persan et l’arabe, il travailla, pendant neuf ou dix ans, en tant que scribe au Grand Vizirat ( Ṣadāret-i ʿUẓmā Mektūbi Odasi). Au cours de cette période il fréquenta des cercle…

ʿAbbās Pasha

(597 words)

Author(s): Nooshin Saheb
ʿAbbās Pasha, also known as ʿAbbās Ḥilmī I, was one of the khedives of Egypt (r. 1264–1270/1848–1854). ʿAbbās, born in Jeddah in 1228/1813, was the only child of Aḥmad Ṭūsun, the son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pasha. After his father died, his grandfather Muḥammad ʿAlī Pasha became his guardian, with particular responsibility for his education (Sāmī, 1(3)/71; Fahmī 40; Jawāhir Kalām, 84; Holt, 193). During this period ʿAbbās accompanied his paternal uncle, Ibrāhīm Pasha, on campaigns in Syria, took charge of certain gover…
Date: 2017-04-21

Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a

(1,211 words)

Author(s): Ozbaran, S.
( ḳaptan pasha , ḳapudan-i deryā ), title of the commander-in-chief of the Ottoman navy. Although the word evidently derives from the Italian term capitano (for its various uses see H. and R. Kahane and A. Tietze, The Lingua Franca in the Levant , Urbana 1958, 139 ff.), it does not follow that the Ottoman navy [see baḥriyya, iii] was modelled upon any foreign naval organization (see M. F. Köprülüzade, Bizans müesseselerinin Osmanli muesseselerine teʾsiri hakkinda bâzi mülâhazalar , in THITM, i (1931), 205-7; İ. H. Uzunçarşilī, Osmanli devletinin merhez ve bahriye teşkilâti

Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a

(451 words)

Author(s): Blackburn, J.R.
, an Ottoman governor or beylerbeyi of Yemen and of Egypt in the 10th/16th century, whose avarice and devotion to self-promotion led to the near-expulsion of the Ottomans from southwestern Arabia. A Bosnian by birth, Maḥmūd was selected at Damascus in 944/1538 by Dāwūd Pas̲h̲a, the new governor of Egypt ¶ (945-56/1538-49), as his ketk̲h̲udā . He subsequently held various positions in Egypt, including those of amīr al-ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ for 957/1550 and 958/1551 and of sand̲j̲aḳ beyi , making both enemies and friends in his pursuit and distribution of weal…

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(567 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, K̲h̲od̲j̲a Meḥmed (1111-76/1699-1763), Ottoman Grand Vizier and littérateur. He was born in Istanbul, the son of the kātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī. and was soon on account of his unusual ability employed in the dīwān . He then acted as secretary and deputy-chamberlain to the governors of Van, ʿArifī Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a, and Köprülü-zāde ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], and, lastly, to Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. In 1141/1728 he returned to ¶ the capital and in the following year went back to Bag̲h̲dād as deputy to the reʾīs efendi . Soon after the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād in 1146/1733 he was appointed def…

Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a

(602 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Muḥammad Kečed̲j̲i-Zāde), an Ottoman statesman, born in 1230 = 1815 ¶ in Constantinople, the son of the poet ʿIzzet Molla [q. v.], who mentions hitn in his Miḥnet-kes̲h̲ān, studied medicine after leaving the school of Galata-Serāi and entered the army medical service with the rank of yüzbās̲h̲i (captain) and was sent to Tripoli in North Africa. Returning in 1253 = 1837 to Constantinople, he entered the service of the Porte as interpreter, was sent to London in 1256 = 1840 as first secretary to the Embassy and in 1261 = 1845 attended the co…

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(577 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, an Ottoman grand vizier. Rāg̲h̲ib Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a was born in 1111 (1699) in Stambul, the son of the kiātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī, was soon on account of his unusual ability employed in the dīwān, then acted as secretary and deputy-chamberlain to the governor of Wan, ʿĀrifī Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, and Köprülü-zāde ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] and lastly to Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. In 1141 (1728) he returned to Stambul and in the following year went back to Bag̲h̲dād as deputy to the reʾīs efendi. Soon after the conquest of Bag̲h̲dād in 1146 (1733) he was appointed defterdār there, but very soon …

Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Ozbaran, S.
(Ḳaptan Pas̲h̲a, Ḳapudan-i deryā), titre du commandant en chef de la flotte ottomane. Bien que ce terme dérive évidemment de l’italien capitano (sur ses différents emplois, voir H. et R. Kahane et A. Tietze, The Lingua Franca in the Levant, Urbana 1958, 139 sqq.), il ne s’ensuit pas que la marine ottomane [voir Baḥriyya, III] ait pris pour modèle une organisation navale étrangère (voir H. F. Köprülüzade, Bizans müasseselerinin Osmanli muasseselerine te’sirihakkinda bâzi mulâhazalar, dans THITM, I (1931), 205-7; İ. H. Uzunçarşili, Osmanli devletinin merkez ve bahriyye teşkilâti, A…

Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a

(584 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Meḥmed (1111-76/1699-1763), grand-vizir et homme de lettres ottoman qui naquit à Istanbul. Fils du kātib Meḥmed S̲h̲ewḳī. il fut très tôt employé dans la chancellerie en raison de ses talents remarquables, puis il entra au service des gouverneurs de Van, ʿĀrifī Aḥmed Pas̲h̲a et finalement Ḥekīm-zāde ʿAlī-Pas̲h̲a comme secrétaire et intendant suppléant. En 1141/1728, il revint à Istanbul, mais pour retourner l’année suivante à Bag̲h̲dād avec les fonctions de suppléant du reʾīs efendi. Aussitôt après la conquête de Bag̲h̲dād (1146/1733), il y obtint le poste de defterdār,…

Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a

(458 words)

Author(s): Blackburn, J. R.
beylerbeyi (gouverneur) ottoman du Yémen et de l’Egypte au Xe/XVIe siècle, dont l’avarice et l’ambition provoquèrent quasiment l’expulsion des Ottomans de l’Arabie du Sud-ouest. Bosniaque d’origine, il fut choisi à Damas, en 944/1538, par le nouveau gouverneur d’Égypte, Dāwūd Pas̲h̲a (945-56/1538-49), comme ketk̲h̲udā. Il occupa ensuite diverses fonctions en Égypte, notamment celles d’ amīr al-ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ en 957/1550 et 958/1551 et de sand̲j̲aḳ beyi, et se fit des ennemis et des amis en recherchant et en distribuant des richesses. En 967/1560, il obtint le …

Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a

(428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, al-Faransawī, (Sèves — parfois Sève — Pacha, 1788-1860), l’un des officiers français au service de l’armée de Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Joseph Anthelme Sèves (devenu Octave Joseph de Sèves) était le fils d’un drapier de Lyon. A quinze ans, il s’enrôla dans l’armée, puis servit dans les hussards. Il participa à la campagne napoléonienne de Prusse (1806-7) et fut nommé adjudant. Pendant les Cent Jours (1814), promu capitaine, il servit dans l’Etat Major du maréchal Grouchy. Révoqué par le gouvernement royal, il g…

Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a

(1,638 words)

Author(s): Kahle, P. | Holt, P.M.
, the eldest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī [ q.v.], general, and viceroy of Egypt. He is often described as Muḥammad ʿAlī’s “adopted” son. Amīna, a relative of his foster-father, the governor ( čorbad̲j̲i̊ ) of Kavalla in Macedonia, was certainly a divorced woman when Muḥammad ʿAlī married her in 1787, and it cannot be denied that Muḥammad ʿAlī had a certain preference for his son Ṭūsūn, who died on 28 September 1816; there was certainly also a rivalry between Ibrāhīm and Ṭūsūn. The year of his birth is decisive, h…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(678 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Viceroy (Ḵh̲edive) of Egypt from 1854 to 1863. Muḥammad Saʿīd, youngest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pās̲h̲ā, was born in 1822. His father had a very high opinion of this, his fourth, son whom he sent when only 19 to Constantinople to conduct negotiations regarding the tribute to be paid by Egypt. Saʿīd, who was francophil, was not on good terms with his nephew and predecessor, ʿAbbās I [q.v.]. The latter had done everything possible to induce the Porte to alter the law of succession formulated by the Sulṭān’s firmān in favour of Muḥammad ʿAlī and to s…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(790 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Muḥammad , youngest son of Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] and hereditary viceroy of Egypt, theoretically under Ottoman suzerainty, 1854-63. He was styled Pas̲h̲a, but was already known in informal and unofficial usage as Khedive before this latter title was formally adopted after his death [see k̲h̲idīw ]. Born in 1822, his father had had a high opinion of his capabilities and had sent him at the age of only nineteen to Istanbul for negotiations over the tribute payable by Egypt to the Porte. Saʿīd’s uncle and predecessor in the governorship of Egypt, ʿAbbās Ḥilmī I b. Aḥmad Ṭūsūn [ q.v.], had…

Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a

(680 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(Damad), favourite of Aḥmad III, and his Grand Vizier for many years. He was the son of a certain ʿAlī Ag̲h̲ā and was born about 1678 in Mūs̲h̲ḳara near Ürgüb, in the district of Nigde. At the age of 20 he came to the capital, where he obtained a positon as ḥalwad̲j̲i (confectioner) in the Ancient Serai. His remarkable intelligence and his ability in writing must have attracted notice, for soon afterwards he was appointed clerk of the imperial harem, and it was in this office that he had an opportunity of becoming acquainted with Prince Aḥmad, a…

Ḥusain Pas̲h̲a

(644 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, better known under the denomination Ag̲h̲ā Ḥusain Pas̲h̲a, or Ag̲h̲ā Pas̲h̲a, ¶ the son of a certain Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲i Muṣṭafā, was born in Adrianople in 1190 (1776) though popular tradition considers Rūsčuk as his birth-place. As his father had moved to Bender he was enlisted there in the 9th band ( bülük) of the Janissaries and came to Constantinople in 1203 (1788-1789). Later on he took part in the Russian War (1807— 1812) and soon occupied a prominent position among the usta (sergeants) of the Janissaries. After having been promoted to the rank of zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i bas̲h̲i the Grand Vizier, S…

Pertew Pas̲h̲a

(689 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, the name of two Ottoman statesmen. I. Pertew Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a , Ottoman admiral and wezīr , started his career on the staff of the imperial harem, became ḳapud̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ [see Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ ], later Ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries, and in 962/1555 he was advanced to the rank of wezīr; in 968/1561 he was appointed third wezīr, in 982/1574 second wezīr and finally commander ( serdār ) of the imperial fleet under the ḳapudan pas̲h̲a Muʾed̲h̲d̲h̲in-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. He had fought at the Battle of Lepanto [see aynabak̲h̲ti̊ ]. He later fell into disgrace and died in I…

Pertew Pas̲h̲a

(666 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, the name of two Ottoman statesmen. I. Pertew Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Ottoman admiral and wezīr, started his career on the staff of the imperial harem, became ḳapud̲j̲i bas̲h̲i [q. v.], later Ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries and in 962 (1555) he was advanced to the rank of wezīr; in 968 (1561) he was appointed third wezīr, in 982 (ʿ574) second wezīr and finally commander ( serdār) of the imperial fleet under the ḳapudan pas̲h̲a Muʾezzin-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a. He later fell into disgrace and died in Stambul where he was buried in his own türbe in the cemetery of Eiyūb. ¶ Bibliography J. v. Hammer, G.O.R., iii. 382,…

Murād Pas̲h̲a

(1,330 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, Kuyud̲j̲u, Ḳod̲j̲a (vers 928-1020/vers 1520-1611), grand-vizir ottoman sous le règne d’Aḥmed Ier. Enfant du dews̲h̲irme [ q.v.] d’origine croate, il reçut son éducation au palais impérial, et sa carrière débuta sous le patronage de Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a, le beglerbegi du Yémen et d’Égypte. Entre 1560 et 1569, il fut le ketk̲h̲udā [ q.v.] de ce dernier; en Égypte, il occupa aussi le poste d’ amīr al-ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲, qui ouvrait la voie à une haute fonction publique. En 983/1576, il devint lui-même beglerbegi du Yémen pour quatre ans environ. Révoqué en 988/1580, pour cause de corrupti…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(852 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Muḥammad, le plus jeune fils de Muḥammad ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] et vice roi héréditaire d’Egypte, théoriquement sous suzeraineté ottomane, de 1854 à 1863. Il fut appelé Pas̲h̲a mais était déjà connu, selon un usage informel et non officiel, comme Khédive avant que ce dernier titre ne soit officiellement adopté après sa mort [voir Ḵh̲idīw]. Il était né en 1822. Son père avait une haute opinion de ses capacités et l’avait envoyé à l’âge de neuf ans seulement à Istanbul pour négocier le montant de l’impôt dû par l’Egypte à la Porte. L’oncle et prédécess…

Piyāle Pas̲h̲a

(966 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, Ottoman Grand Admiral, came according to St. Gerlach, Tage-Buch (Frankfurt a/M. 1674, 448), from Tolna in Hungary and is said to have been the son of a shoemaker, probably of Croat origin. Almost all contemporary records mention his Croat blood (cf. the third series of the Relazioni degli ambasciatori Veneti al Senato , ed. E. Albèri, Florence 1844-5, and esp. iii/2, 243: di nazione croato, vicino ai confini d’Ungheria; 357: di nazione croato; iii/3, 294: di nazione unghero; 418). Following the custom of the time, his father was later given the name of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān an…

Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(874 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le | Orhonlu, Cengiz
, son of K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn [ q.v.] and placed in command at Algiers three times: 1544-1551, 1557-1561, and 1562-1567. The son of an Algerine woman, he was less than 28 years old when appointed pas̲h̲a of Algiers for the first time. His first command (as deputy to his father, who was both Beylerbey and Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a) was marked at the beginning by the strengthening of the fortifications of Algiers, found to be inadequate after the expedition of Charles V in 1541. On the other hand, he tried to settle th…

Piāle Pas̲h̲a

(979 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Franz
, Ottoman Grand Admiral, came according to St. Gerlach, Tage-Buch (Frankfurt a/M. 1674, p. 448), from Tolna in Hungary and is said to have been the son of a shoemaker probably of Croat origin. Almost all contemporary records mention his Croat blood (cf. the third series of the Relazioni degli ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, ed. E. Albert, Florence 1844—1845, and esp. 111/ii. 243: di nazione croato vicino al confini d’Ungheria; p. 357: di nazione croato; 111/iii. 294: di nazione unghero; p. 418). Following the custom of the time his father was later given the name of ʿAbd al…

Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(817 words)

Author(s): Tourneau, R. le | Orhonlu, Cengiz
, fils de Ḵh̲ayr al-dīn [ q.v.] et trois fois chargé du commandement à Alger, de 951 à 958/1544-51, puis de 964 à 968/1557-61, enfin de 969 à 975/1562-7. Comme il était fils d’une femme d’Alger, i’ avait moins de vingt-huit ans lorsqu’il fut nommé pas̲h̲a d’Alger pour la première fois. Son premier commandement (en qualité de lieutenant de son père qui était à la fois beylerbey et ḳapudan pas̲h̲a) fut d’abord marqué par le renforcement ¶ des fortifications d’Alger jugées insuffisantes à la suite de l’expédition de Charles-Quint en 1541. D’autre part, il s’efforça de régl…

Pertew Pas̲h̲a

(662 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, nom de deux hommes d’Etat ottomans. I. Pertew Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, amiral et vizir. Provenant du service du harem impérial, il fut promu ḳapud̲j̲i bas̲h̲i [voir Ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊], puis ag̲h̲a des Janissaires en 962/1555. En 968/1561, il devint troisième vizir, en 982/1574 second vizir et finalement, sous le ḳapudan pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] Muʾed̲h̲d̲h̲in-zāde ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a, commandant ( serdār) de la flotte impériale. Il avait participé à la bataille de Lépante [voir Aynabak̲h̲ti̊]. Il tomba plus tard en disgrâce et mourut en 982/1574 à Istanbul, où il repose dans une türbe personnelle au cimetière …

Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a

(1,652 words)

Author(s): Kahle, P. | Holt, P.M.
, fils aîné de Muḥammad ʿAlī [ q.v.], général et vice-roi d’Égypte; on a souvent dit de lui qu’il était le fils «adoptif » de Muḥammad ʿAlī. Amīna, parente de son père nourricier, le gouverneur ( čorbad̲j̲i̊) de Kavalla en Macédoine, était certainement divorcée lorsque Muḥammad ʿAlī l’épousa en 1787, et l’on ne peut nier que ce dernier ait eu une certaine préférence pour son fils Ṭūsūn qui mourut le 28 septembre 1816; il y avait certainement aussi une rivalité entre Ibrāhīm et Ṭūsūn. L’année de sa naissance est cependant décisive:…

Sulaimān Pas̲h̲a

(1,089 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(1316-1359), the eldest son of the second Ottoman Sulṭān, Ork̲h̲an (1326—1359), and of Nīlūfer (Lülūfer) daughter of the Greek lord of Yar Ḥiṣār. His younger brother was Murād Ḵh̲ān afterwards Sulṭān. Only Greek sources record a third brother Ḵh̲alīl and his romantic abduction by a Greek corsair (cf. J. I. Hod̲j̲i Efendi, S̲h̲ehzāde Ḵh̲alīlin Sergüd̲h̲es̲h̲ti, Revue Historique, i., N°. 4, p. 239; N°. 7, p. 436, Constantinople 1328/1329). The title pas̲h̲a which he bore, according to ancient custom, marks him as the elder brother, as is the case also …

Ḥusayn Pas̲h̲a

(1,170 words)

Author(s): Aktepe, M. Münir
( Küčük Ḥüseyin Pas̲h̲a ) ¶ (1758-1803), Ottoman Ḳapudān Pas̲h̲a of Circassian origin. Since he was 46 years old at his death in 1803, he must have been born in 1758. He was presented to Sultan Muṣṭafā III by the Silāḥdār Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a, in 1181/1767-8. Although it has been asserted that he was the foster-brother of Selīm III ( K̲h̲arīṭa-i Ḳapudānān-i deryā , 105), it seems more likely that his first duty in the palace was in the service of Prince Meḥmed (b. 1767), the brother of Selīm III (Wāṣif, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , MS Ali Emiri (Millet Kütüp.) 609, fol. 197a; D̲j̲ewdet, Taʾrīk̲h̲, vii, 266). Küčük Ḥüse…

Piyāle Pas̲h̲a

(916 words)

Author(s): Babinger, Fr.
, grand-amiral ottoman, originaire, d’après St. Gerlach ( Tage-Buch Francfort-surle-Main 1674, 448), de Tolna (Hongrie); il aurait été le fils d’un cordonnier d’origine vraisemblablement croate. Presque tous les récits contemporains confirment cette origine (cf. la troisième série des Relazioni degli ambasciatori Veneti al Senato, publ. par E. Albèri, Florence 1844-5 et en particulier III/2, 243, 357, III/3, 294, 418). Conformément aux habitudes de l’époque, on fit après coup, de son père, un Musulman en lui donnant le nom de ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (cf. F. Babinger, dans Litteraturdenkm…

Ḥusayn Pas̲h̲a

(1,146 words)

Author(s): Aktepe, M. Münir
(Küčük Ḥüseyin Pas̲h̲a) (1758-1803), ḳapudān pas̲h̲a ottoman d’origine circassienne; étant donné qu’il était âgé de 46 ans à sa mort en 1803, il doit être né en 1758. Il fut présenté au sultan Muṣṭafā III par le silāḥdār Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a en 1181/1767-8; bien que l’on ait affirmé qu’il était le frère de lait de Selīm III ( Ḵh̲arīṭa-i Ḳapdānān-i derya, 105), il paraît plus probable que pour sa première fonction au palais il fut au service du prince Meḥmed (né en 1767). frère de Selīm III (Wāṣif, Taʾrīk̲h̲, ms. Ali Emixi (Millet Kütüp.) 609, fol. 197a; Ḏj̲ewdet, Taʾrīk̲h̲, VII, 266). Küčük Ḥüseyin…

K̲h̲alīl Pas̲h̲a

(1,616 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, name of three Turkish Grand Viziers. 1) Čendereli Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a in the reign of Murād II, vide čendereli. 2) Ḳaiṣarīyeli Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a, Grand Vizier under Aḥmad I and Murād IV. He was an Armenian by birth, born in a village called Ruswān in the neighbourhood of Ḳaiṣarīya (Münad̲j̲d̲j̲im Bas̲h̲i̊; the statement of the Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, ii. 286, that he came from Marʿas̲h̲ is incorrect). The date of his birth is not given but must be about 1560. Having been educated at court as Ič Og̲h̲lan, he entered the corps of the falconers and became dog̲h̲and̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊, in which capacit…

Sulaymān Pas̲h̲a

(428 words)

Author(s): Groot, A.H. de
, al-Faransawī (Sèves or Sève Pas̲h̲a, 1788-1860), one of the French officers serving in Muḥammad ʿAlī’s Pas̲h̲a’s [ q.v.] army. Joseph Anthelme Sève was the son of a Lyons draper. When fifteen years old, he enlisted as a gunner in the French army, and later served in the Hussars. He fought in Napoleon’s Prussian campaign (1806-7) and was promoted to the rank of adjutant, and during the “Hundred Days” (1814), he served on the staff of Marshal Grouchy. Dismissed by the royal government, he went to Egypt in 1815, and was eventually attached to the staff of Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Sève became an…

Midḥat Pas̲h̲a

(4,433 words)

Author(s): Davison, R.H.
(1822-84), fonctionnaire ottoman qui fut gouverneur de province, deux fois grand-vizir et père de la Constitution de 1876. Né à Istanbul en ṣafar 1238/octobre-novembre 1822, il était le fils de Rusčuklu Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Efendi-zāde Hād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥāfi̊ẓ Meḥmed Es̲h̲ref Efendi; il reçut le nom d’Ahmed S̲h̲efïḳ, mais, ayant appris le Ḳurʿān par cœur à l’âge de 10 ans, il fut appelé Ḥāfi̊ẓ S̲h̲efīḳ. En 1833, il alla habiter, avec sa famille, Vidin, où son père était juge suppléant. Quand sa famille retourna à Istanbul l’année suivante, il commença son apprentissage au secrétariat du dīwān im…

Midḥat Pas̲h̲a

(4,127 words)

Author(s): Davison, R.H.
(1822-84), Ottoman provincial governor, twice grand vizier, and father of the 1876 constitution. Midḥat was born in Istanbul in Ṣafar 1238/October-November 1822, the son of Rusčuklu Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Efendi-zāde Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḥāfi̊ẓ Meḥmed ¶ Es̲h̲ref Efendi. He was named Aḥmed S̲h̲efīḳ. Having memorised the Ḳurʾān at 10, he was then called Ḥāfi̊z S̲h̲efīḳ. In 1833 he moved with his family to Vidin, where his father was an assistant judge. When his family returned to Istanbul the next year, he became an apprentice in the secretariat of the imperial dīwān . His tal…

Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a

(1,807 words)

Author(s): Davison, R.H.
, Kečed̲j̲i-zāde Meḥmed , five times Ottoman Foreign Minister and twice Grand Vizier, was born in Istanbul in 1815, the son of the poet ʿIzzet Molla [ q.v.]. Upon his father’s exile to Sivas in 1829 Fuʾād switched from the usual theological curriculum to the new medical school, where he learned French, the key to his future career. From 1834-5 he spent three years as an army doctor in Tripoli in Africa; but since the Porte’s diplomatic business was rapidly increasing, his French gained Fuʾād appointment to the Translation…

K̲h̲usraw Pas̲h̲a

(2,289 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of two Turkish grandviziers. 1. The Bosnian Ḵh̲usraw Pas̲h̲a, grandvizier under Murād IV. Brought up in the imperial palace, he held the offices of Siliḥdār and of Ag̲h̲a of the Janissaries (from 1033/1624) and later in Rad̲j̲ab 1036 (March—April 1627) he received the rank of Wezīr-i Ḳubbe-nis̲h̲in. In November 1627 after the failure of the grand vizier Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] to subdue the rebel Abāza Pas̲h̲a at Erzerūm, a council called by the Sulṭān decided, on the proposal of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām Yaḥyā Efendi, to depose Ḵh̲al…

Fuʾād Pas̲h̲a

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Davison, R.H.
Kečed̲j̲i-zāde Meḥmed, qui fut cinq fois ministre ottoman des Affaires Étrangères et deux fois grand-vizir, naquit à Istanbul en 1815. Fils du poète ʿIzzet Molla [ q.v.], il abandonna, après l’exil de son père à Sivas en 1829, les études théologiques habituelles pour entrer à la nouvelle école de médecine, où il apprit le français, clé de sa future carrière. A partir de 1834-5, il passa trois ans à Tripoli d’Afrique en qualité de médecin militaire mais, comme les affaires diplomatiques de la Porte se développaient rapide…

ʿAlī

(768 words)

(Sīdī ʿAlī) b. Ḥusain, who as a poet called himself Kiātib-i rūmī (also simply Kiātibī or Rūmī), was a Turkish admiral who distinguished himself as an explorer and oceanographer. Following the example of his grandfather and father who had both been administrators of the arsenal at Galata, he entered the navy and was present at the conquest of Cyprus (1522). After that we lose sight of him; we only know that he took part in the famous voyages on the Mediterranean of Ḵh̲air al-Dīn Pas̲h̲a, Sinān Pas̲…

ʿĀlī

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, properly called Muṣṭafā b. Aḥmed b. ʿAbd al-Mawlā Čelebī, was one of the most brilliant men-of-lecters of the 16th century in Turkey. He ¶ was bom in 948 (1541-1542), or in 949, at Gallipoli, and had the rare good fortune, when a boy of nine years old, to hear Surūrī, the greatest scholar in the Persian language and literature that the Ottoman nation ever produced. No other teachers of his are known except Muḥyi ’l-Dīn, the master of Arabian versification (who must not be confused with another Arabist of the same nam…

ʿĀlī

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Mantran, R.
, muṣṭafā b. aḥmad b. ʿabd al-mawlā čelebi , one of the most outstanding representatives of Turkish literature of the 16th century. Born at Gallipoli in 948/1541, from the age of 10 he studied under Surūrī, great expert in Persian language and literature, and then under the Arab poet Muḥyi ’l-Dīn. In 965/1557 he presented to the heir-apparent Selīm his work entitled Mihr u-Māh , a step which determined his future career (see Dozy, Cat . cod . or. bibl . Acad . Lugd . Batavae , ii, 128). He became a member of the circle of his fellow-citizen Muṣṭafā, tutor to…

ʿĀlī

(1,156 words)

Author(s): K. Süssheim-[R. Mantran]
(1541-1600). De son vrai nom Muṣtafā b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Mawlā Čelebī, ʿĀlī est un des représentants les plus brillants de la littérature turque au XVIe siècle. Né à Gallipoli en 948/1541, il reçoit dès l’âge de dix ans les leçons de Surūrī, le meilleur connaisseur de la langue et de la litté- rature persanes, puis celles du poète arabe Muḥyī l-dīn. En 965/1557, il présente au prince héritier Selīm son œuvre intitulée Mihr-u māh, ce qui décide de sa carrière (v. Dozy, Cat. cod. or. bibl. Acad. Lugd. Batavae, II, 128). Il est désigné pour faire partie de la suite de son concitoyen Mu…
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